Thesis of scientists. In 1984, a different group of

Thesis
Essay HPV

According to Wakley and Chambers (109),
the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), is a form of a virus that is transmitted
through sexual intercourse and it is mainly
characterized by mouth and genital warts. The Federal Government of the United States
should implement legislation that the HPV vaccine be given at the age of nine
for all children nationwide. There are several reasons behind this claim; including,
the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine prevents cervical cancer, genital
warts, and other strands of cancer. Other arguments will be highlighted and
discussed in detail to show the benefits of this vaccine and ultimately lead to
an enactment of a law enforcing its use nationwide. In the same line, arguments
which might be raised declining the formulation of such a law will also be
given close attention.

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                                                     The Human
Papilloma Virus                                    

From
the work by Hausen (245), it can be noted that HPV was first discovered in 1956
by a group of scientists. In 1984, a different group of scientists related HPV
to cervical cancer in women. Clifford (994) says that these groups of scientists
were trying to find a link between a woman’s lifestyle and cervical cancer. They
compared and contrasted the lifestyle of women with cervical cancer and women
that did not have cervical cancer. They discovered that those women who had
warts on their genitals were also diagnosed with cervical cancer. Linking this
information with research that was done in 1930, where it was concluded that
rabbits with genital warts also had genital cancer, they came to the conclusion
that genital warts caused cancer and since HPV causes genital warts than HPV is
a risk factor.

According
to the CDC published summary, there are
patterns of adverse events reported during the administration of vaccines since
the time it was approved in June 2006. However,
about 92.4% of the adverse effects are
non-life threatening. But, there are several instances of unusual neurological
diseases reported in young females. Further, parents are increasingly resisting
vaccination and 44% of parents have admitted that vaccinating their children is
not part of their intentions. Basically, resistance to vaccination is fueled by
the lack of education from healthcare providers relating to the side effects of
the HPV vaccination and human sexuality ethical issues. Despite credible
evidence that ethical considerations and research costs could substantially hinder
the implementation of HPV vaccination, equally credible evidence confirms that
a greater cost could be sustained in the long run if the United States does not immediately
establish a policy to substantially provide education on the benefits and risks
of the HPV virus.

Why
the HPV Vaccination should be enforced by the Federal Government

In
current times, cancer is termed as one of the most dangerous diseases affecting people across the globe. In
research done by Parkin (534), it can be noted that the disease causes the
death of over seven million people annually. In this case, it should be noted
that there are different types of HPV infections with each having its own signs
and symptoms. They also have different effects on the body; meaning, that the
HPV which causes cancer is not necessarily the same HPV that causes genital
warts. This is something that makes it even harder for doctors to treat
affected individuals. According to Paavonen et al. 305), HPV is one of the risk
factors for anal, vaginal, penis, mouth, or
throat cancers. Having this in mind, it therefore only helps to prevent individuals from being attacked by this fatal
disease through any possible means. This can be done by giving children
nationwide the HPV vaccine at the age of nine.

Most
teenagers are increasing the spread of HPV because most young men and women in
college are sexually active, but naïve. Most of them are starting to discover
themselves sexually. Therefore, they overindulge in sexual activities;
including, anal, oral, and/or vaginal sex. At least 30% of college students are
infected with HPV during their first two years in college and 54% of all college
students are infected with HPV. Most of them do not know about it until later
in their lives which places a lot of people at risk of getting infected.
Bearing in mind that through vaccination that such a large magnitude of
youthful people can be protected, it is therefore only brilliant to enact a law
enforcing the vaccination and ensure that future youths are protected.

A
virus like HIV has made quite a large number of people go through a lot of
suffering. Since its discovery in the 1980s,
different scientists across the world have tried to come up with a solution,
but all this is in vain. By first considering this scenario, it is only
reasonable to argue that any kind of medication to treat HIV can be highly
acceptable. In the same line, if there was not any medication for HPV,
individuals suffering from it would go for any solution raised to prevent it.
It is because people know the disease is somehow manageable, they do not give
it as close attention as HIV. Therefore, since there is a solution, the
solution should be accepted the same way the HIV medication can be accepted. It
can even be enforced through all means possible. Including, making it a law.

Even
though some individuals might take it lightly, the HPV virus is as dangerous as
any other harmful virus like HIV. As stated earlier, the viruses are different.
In this regard, once an individual has been affected, identifying the virus
first is a tough task for the doctors. They have to first carry out some complicated tests in order to
identify the virus and the right medication for it. In this case, the doctors
are not always in a position to identify the virus first and come up with its
medication. It takes time, thereby worsening the situation of the patient and
this can ultimately cause death. Bearing in mind that there is a way which can
help someone to avoid all this kind of distress, it is therefore only
reasonable to go for it instead of waiting and being affected. Noting the fact
that not everyone acknowledges this fact, making it a law would go a long way in helping different
individuals across the nation.

Different
from other diseases like cholera that hardly contaminates people if due
diligence is observed, the HPV virus contaminates individuals quite easily.
According to Chesney (252), there are two main ways through which this virus
can be spread; sexual intercourse and skin contact. In terms of sexual intercourse, it should be noted that
many individuals across the world are sexually active. This means that there is
a large number of them who engage in sexual intercourse regularly. In this line
of thought, it can be deemed that there is a high number of people who are at the risk of contaminating the HPV virus.
In terms of skin contact, individuals usually come into personal contact with
strangers in various public places like buses or busy streets. In this case, it
should be noted that one great way to reduce the high possibility of
individuals being affected is through enforcing vaccination.

As
discussed above, although the virus is not highly contagious like measles or
other germ transmitted diseases, the implementation of the vaccine needs to be
affected with a lot of consideration. HPV transmission is never random since it
is transferred only through sexual intercourse and oral sex. This raises a lot
of concerns with parents. Some parents perceive that the HPV vaccination will
be like granting their children permission to be sexually active. The vaccine
may not be correlated with sexual activity in teenagers (White, n.p).
Nevertheless, the additional protection offered
against the HPV virus known to cause cervical cancer is not sufficient to protect against all strains of HPV
viruses. As such, ladies require regular pap smear tests to hinder HPV
infections. Still, only 8% of the adverse effects were considered serious, and
the majority of the reactions included fainting, dizziness, nausea, constant
headache, fever, and hives. Additionally, contracting HPV is not immediately
apparent and is often a non-issue. Especially because most HPV infections disappear
within a two-year period (Wailoo,
45).

In
the current times, money is a necessity. Without which a person can hardly
survive. In this regard, it is always important for individuals to ensure that
they get the maximum they can manage and spend as little as they can. In line
with the HPV, it should be noted that once a person is infected by the virus,
it requires medication. In many instances, this medication is quite expensive
and patients are required to pay quite a huge sum of money for the treatment.
In some instances, some patients are not in a position to settle their medical
bills and end up suffering. However, on the contrary, the vaccination is quite
cheap and sometimes the government is in a position to settle the amount
charged for the same. Therefore, enacting such a law would go a long way in
helping both the wealthy and the poor citizens of the United States.

The
HPV is not constrained to a particular group of people. Similar to other types
of viruses, the HPV affects everyone without the restriction of age, gender, or
ethnic group. As stated previously, research shows that quite a high number of
college students are at a risk of getting affected
by the virus. In this regard, it should be noted that youths play a key
role in society. For instance, it is the college students who are expected to
demonstrate their skills after college living and be productive in the work
place. Their work overall, contributes to the major economic growth throughout
the nation. Therefore, if there is a health threat facing them, a solution to
that threat should be found and implemented immediately. This is a reason to
enact a law enforcing the HPV vaccination by the Federal Government.

Although
it is important to make HPV vaccination a must as evident from the above
discussion, there are several controversies surrounding the universal
vaccination of HPV. The most common debate revolves around the administration
of a vaccine associated with sexually transmitted diseases in both sexes,
especially for adolescents (Wailoo 4).
According to many critics, the practical and ethical considerations from the
epidemiological perspective should be given close attention. White (n.p)
highlighted several ethical issues. One of the issues in his analysis is whether
it is right to vaccinate people who are abstaining from sex. Arguing from this
perspective, it should be noted that there is no harm in vaccinating people who
are abstaining because there is no direct relationship that exists between
vaccinating individuals and their act of abstaining. Therefore, this argument
by White cannot outweigh the importance of making HPV vaccination a law.

 Another major argument raised by White is that
the HPV vaccination accelerates early sexual relations. Even if such arguments
might be valid, there are several ways to ensure that they do not have a
significant effect on the sexual relations of the vaccinated individuals. For
instance, the vaccination education programs can be carried out to educate the
youths about the vaccination. In such programs, they should be notified that
the vaccine cannot in any way prevent all the risks associated with
uncontrolled sexual relations. Such risks associated with uncontrolled sexual
relations include early pregnancy among girls. In the same line, the vaccine
prevents only one virus; the HPV. They should note that there are other
dangerous types of viruses like HIV. Therefore, the HPV vaccination should not
in any way allow individuals to engage in early sexual relations. This is
something which goes a long way in invalidating this argument by White.

From
the above paragraph, it is clear that
there is a need for improved educational
and counseling programs to assist in the implementation of the vaccine. Many
programs have limited educational components required for counseling patients
and parents with regards to sexuality, as well as creating awareness about the
health implications arising from HPV infections. Vaccine programs cannot
succeed in isolation and require the educational component to support the
rampant risk of sexual behaviors. Parents and physicians should be actively
involved in this educational process while also advocating for the children. Ultimately, the parents must have the right to
decide whether they want to vaccinate their children or not. Even though there
is overwhelming evidence favoring the administration of the vaccine for preventing
the precancerous and malignant diseases caused by HPV infections (Wailoo, 25), there are several risks
within the range of complications of the vaccine over the decades. Yet, it is
difficult to predict whether inclusivity of both sexes will result in the
protection of the broader proportion of the population. Urologists and
pediatricians must continue to gather information about the benefits of HPV
vaccination to constantly keep the patients and parents in the loop.

Apart
from the arguments raised by different scholars affecting the HPV regulations,
manufactures as well get affected by ethical issues raised. In this regard, it
should be noted that the costs of research are usually quite high especially
for maintaining a successful product in the market. Successful programs need to
establish a balance between commercially safe and effective products and
continued research that aims to maintain the development of new viable
products. Successful worldwide implementation of the vaccination programs
requires time and continuous monitoring. Therefore, the negative discussions
surrounding the whole issue of HPV vaccinations go a long way in discouraging
the program. As the manufactures of the drug are affected, the whole program is
also affected. This is something which has
deteriorated the implementation of the overall plan. In this regard, it should
be noted that once the vaccination is made a law, manufacturers will be
carrying on their activities legally thereby ensuring that they conduct all
their activities including research.

 

From
the above discussion, several issues which all substantiate the claim that the
Federal government should implement legislation that the HPV vaccine should be
given at the age nine for all children nationwide. One major discussion has
revolved around a dangerous disease in the current times; cancer. As discussed,
there is enough evidence which shows that
HPV causes cancer. Cancer is one of the diseases which cause a large number of
deaths and various parties are working around the clock to manage the disease.
There is a solution to HPV. The solution
ought to be given a priority by the government. Another major point discussed
is that individuals can be easily contaminated by the virus either through skin
contact or sexual intercourse. Many people across the United States are
sexually active. This is something that increases the possibility of spreading
the disease.

Although
it is clear that the HPV vaccination is an important aspect which ought to be
made a law, there are still critics who argue against the same. One of the
major arguments raised by critics is that
it is unethical to vaccinate individuals who have abstained from sex. However,
it has been found that the vaccination does not have any direct relationship
with some ones choice of whether to abstain or not; individuals can be
vaccinated and still abstain from sex. In the same line, critics have argued
that the vaccination has increased individuals’ sex drive and therefore should
be stopped. However, it has been found that through proper educational
programs, such cases can be avoided. Therefore, the federal government should
go ahead and enact a law which dictates legislation that the HPV vaccine should
be given at the age of nine for all children nationwide since its benefits
outweigh all the issues raised by critics.