The human beings are born with this skill which

The great philosophy Aristotle highlighted that there
are individuals who have mastered the art of being a ‘good’ person. Aristotle
believed that humans should aspire to moral beings who are virtuous. Virtue
theory is unlike other moral theories as it does not provide rules in which to
follow. It simple addresses individual character and emphasizes that in order
to do good in the world one must be a good person. Aristotle is highly
criticised for simplifying human behaviour and naively thinking that a person
could just decide to be a good person. It was an occurring ancient philosopher belief
that a human is born with an innate fixed nature and flourish by comply with
ones’ nature. Aristotle believed that everything in humans has a function and a
purpose to be fulfilled in life. As humans are rational animal they are able to
use rational to live together successfully and achieve eudaimonia. He believed
that humans are born with the drive to be virtuous beings and knowledge on how
to behave morally. Aristotle believed that in order to be virtuous an
individual must be courageous. However, Aristotle described courage as the
midpoint between cowardice and recklessness; which is the golden mean of
virtue. Aristotle’s ideas of virtue are developed around the idea that every
act of virtue derive from a middle point of good and bad depending on the
situation. He believed that all human beings are born with this skill which he
referred to as a practical wisdom. Aristotle believed that by repeating
virtuous act then individual flourish as virtuous beings; which he named moral
exemplars.

Immanuel Kant was another key philosopher in shaping
views on morals and ethics. Kant acknowledges morality exists, however, does
not base his ideas upon the fact that every being is moral. He believed that
the only thing good and moral is ‘the good will’; the will to do the right
thing and make the right decision. Kant highlighted that in other moral
theories there was no distinction between doing the moral thing from the good
will or doing the moral thing for personal gain. Kant believed that morality is
a system of rules that an individual creates from their own good will and
cannot be forced upon someone. Enlightenment stemmed from Kant belief that an
individual cannot be moral if following another’s guidance. This was a
controversial view as Kant believed those who abide by religion are unable to make
decisions from their own good will and reason. However, not all of Kant’s ideas
of morality are agreed with in modern society. Controversially, Kant believes
that moral rules apply to everyone and in every situation. For example, if a
man knocks on a person’s front door with a knife asking for a loved one inside
that person should not lie to the armed man. According to Kant moral humans are
not permitted to violate the moral law, even to protect the people we love.

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On the contrary, utilitarianism challenges Kantian
views on morality as it pays more attention to the consequences of individual
actions. Jeremy Bentham developed utilitarianism with the belief that good actions
should create a good consequence in all situations. Like Kant, utilitarianism
agrees that all moral theory should be equal to all beings. However, Bentham
believed that moral behaviour is a result of the innate drive to seek happiness;
which is referred to as the hedonistic theory. Utilitarianism does not only
strive to seek pleasure for oneself, but to provide pleasure for the greater
good. Philosopher David Hume added value to utilitarianism as he believed that
humans are more influenced by feelings than by reason. This was considerably
different to Kant’s belief as his moral theory strictly followed logical
reasoning and aimed to prevent personal feelings disrupting morality. Although
most of previous philosophy views on morality are controversial and undermined;
they created the foundation for the view ethics are viewed today. Most moral
theories are conflicting in their ideas of morality. However, they have all in
some way contributed to the BACP ethical framework overtime.

Moral philosophical theories have led to the
understanding of ethics within counselling and psychotherapy. There are many
different thoughts and beliefs on the topic of ethics with conflicting ideas
and approaches. There are three main normative ethical theories which underpin the
importance of maintaining good ethics in society; these are ethics of care,
ethics of empathy and ethics of inclusion. Ethics of care was created in
response to sexism with moral theories. Carol Gillian was fundamental in
creating a feminist voice in ethics of care. Carol Gilligan (…..) believes women
are more concerned with the relationships around their decision to think and do
morally. Gilligan conducted a study on young girls to understand their moral
positioning and their internal drives of motivation to act moral. Gilligan,
like most,  believed that previous male philosopher
over simplified ethics and did not acknowledge highly the difference in sex. In
Gilligan’s studies (…….), she found the girls often judged their moral reasoning
on compassion rather than focusing on a justice-based. Gilligan wanted to
change the way ethics is viewed and emphasised the importance of the
connections with other in consequence to moral actions and decisions.  Nel
Noddings (2010), contributed to the feminist movement in ethics of care.
Noddings believed that in order to be a moral person one must know when they
should act ethically caring to another who is in need of support (Noddings, 2010).

Secondly, the ethics of empathy refers to the
philosophical belief that individuals act ethically. Many philosophers believed
that empathy is the roots of ethically behaviour.  It is thought humans act moral and ethical due
to the skill of empathising with other around them. Furthermore, ethics of
inclusion believes that everybody in society must care for everyone else and live
harmoniously regardless of differences. This believe would be ideal. The idea
that everyone can get along and show compassion to one another without any
ethical wrong doing. However, it is simply unrealistic to believe that human
beings live this way. The ethics of inclusion believes that this is the moral
behaviour all beings should follow. This form of ethics highlights an issue in
ethics, which is diversity. Therefore, these three main ideas of ethics are fundamental
in the BACP framework today. The ethical framework tries to combine all three beliefs
on how people should ethical behave in society and merge them all to develop flourishing
guidance on ethical behaviour.