Purpose of the Technology WMAP (Spacecraft) was launched on

Purpose
of the Technology

      WMAP (Spacecraft) was launched on June
30, 2001, it was an explorer mission launched by NASA. The full form of WMAP is
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The purpose of this technology was to
determine the age of the universe, density of atoms, and the density of other
non-atomic matter (other non-atomic matter like dark energy and dark matter).
This spacecraft was operated from 2001 to 2010. During this time period the
WMAP measured the difference in temperature across the sky in the Cosmic
Microwave Background (CMB) which is remaining heat from the big bang. The WMAP
was used to reveal the conditions that existed in the early universe by
measuring properties of the CMB radiations over the sky. By using the temperature
difference measured from opposite
sides the WMAP was able to create a picture of the microwave radiation. The
image that was created was able to tell us the fundamental structure of the
universe. The Information provided by this technology helped us understand the
conditions of the early universe and possibly how old earth could be.

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Why
/ Background Information

  The operation for WMAP was done from June
2001 to October 2010 for ten years which later ended. While the technology was
in operation a lot of information was learned about the universe. People that
explore space had made many predictions about the universe which had to be
tested. Just like you would normally predict then experiment NASA did the same,
they predicted many things about the universe and then created WMAP spacecraft
to prove their predictions and possibly obtain more information about the
earlier years of the universe. The mission to create the WMAP was selected by
NASA in 1996; it was the result of a competition that was held in 1995. The
conformation for development was in 1997 and four years later the WMAP was
built and ready to launch, on budget and on schedule. The idea of this all and
many other technologies stared in 1964 when the CMB was discovered by an
American astronomer Robert Wilson and a German American Physicist Arno Penzias.
There were a lot of people trying to locate the CMB which could lead to more
answers, to obtain additional Information about the creation of earth and the
Big Bang theory. The CMB radiation could help us pinpoint an amount of years
ago the earth was created. When they can figure that out they can gain more
facts and possibly develop understanding of the universe. There are still a lot
of unanswered question like what is exactly dark matter or dark energy. Gaining
answers and  proving predictions was an
important part of understanding the universe, so that is where the WMAP comes
in.

Research
and Results

   As for today this technology is not being
used to obtain information that is because the mission was from 2001 to 2010.
After it was over the research using that technology was done. But during the
mission the research conducted provided a lot of information about space and
the diffehttps://www.britannica.com/topic/Wilkinson-Microwave-Anisotropy-Probe

rent
densities

Findings/
Discoveries

 The WMAP science team has determined to a high
level of accuracy and precision, not just the age of the universe, but also the
density of atoms and all other non-atomic matter; the period when the first
stars started to shine and the “lumpiness” of the universe. The
WMAP’s objective was to measure the temperature differences in the Cosmic
Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. The anisotropies were then used to
measure the universe’s content, geometry, and evolution. It was also used to
test the Big Bang model and the cosmic inflation theory. The main result of the
mission is in the many different oval maps of the CMB spectrum over the years.
These oval maps show the temperature distribution gained by the WMAP team from
the observations by the mission’s telescope. What they have measured is the
temperature obtained from a “Planck’s law” version of the microwave background.
The results describe the state of the universe only a few hundred-thousand
years after the Big Bang. The microwave background is very homogenous in
temperature; but the temperature variations are presented through different
colors (the red areas are hotter; the blue areas are cooler than average). The
energy density in the universe is only 5.9 protons per cubic meter. Of this
total density, we know the breakdown to be: `

 

4.6% of the
universe is made up of Atoms. More than 95% of the energy density in the
universe is in a form that has never been directly detected in the laboratory.

 

24% makes up
Cold Dark Matter. Dark matter is likely to be composed of one or more species
of sub-atomic particles that react very weakly with ordinary matter.

 

71.4% is Dark
Energy. The first observational hints of dark energy in the universe date back
to the 1980’s when astronomers were trying to understand how clusters of
galaxies were formed. Their attempts to explain the observed distribution of
galaxies were improved if dark energy were present, but the evidence was highly
uncertain

 

The Future Of
This Technology:

The future of
WMAP is discovering what makes up dark matter and dark energy. Particle
physicists have many plausible candidates for the dark matter that makes up our
universe, and new particle accelerator experiments are likely to bring new
insight in the coming years. WMAP is the first mission to use an L2 orbit as
its permanent observing station. L2 is a semi-stable region of gravity that is
about four times further than the Moon, following the Earth around the Sun.
Each WMAP observation of requires a six month period. WMAP orbits L2 in an oval
pattern every six months, and requires occasional station keeping maneuvers to
remain in position (usually about every three months). As of October 28, 2010,
the spacecraft has remained in observing mode, collecting data in silence; this
will continue for as long as the battery holds up. It will orbit the Sun out
beyond L2, where it will be a new object for small body astronomers to find