Lipids follows: Application in the chocolate and confectionery Chocolate

Lipids Assignment

 

Question:
The application of lipids in the food industry?

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Introduction

Lipids
are defined as any of a group of organic compounds
consisting of the fats and other substances of similar properties: they are
insoluble in water but however soluble in fat solvents and alcohol, and greasy to
the touch, and are important constituents of living cells.

 

Fats and
oils are essential elements in a range of foods. They present appropriate features
on numerous foods, add to tenderness to shortened cake, and by aerating batter,
fats aid in determining texture in cakes; they also add flavor to foods and effect
the order in which constituents of flavor are released when foods are consumed,
moreover having a greasing effect and producing a sensation of wetness in the
mouth. There is therefore a lot of application of lipids in the food industry
and they are as follows:

 

Application in the chocolate and
confectionery

 Chocolate manufacturing process normally
follows the common steps. Firstly, the ingredients such as cocoa liquor, sugar,
cocoa butter, and skimmed milk
powder (depending on product category) are merged. After which the
refining procedure takes place in a 2, 3, or 5-roll refiner. This is an imperative
phase to attain a smooth texture necessary for the present chocolate products,
and the final particle size critically impacts the rheological and sensory
properties. Following, conching, which is normally carried out by stirring
chocolate at more than 50 °C for few hours, takes place. One of the chief goals
of conching is to produce the optimum viscosity for the following processing,
and in this phase fat is very vital. Ultimately, there is the tempering of
mass, following the most regularly steps such as: thorough melting, cooling to
the point of crystallization, crystallization, and melting out of unstable
crystals. The aim of tempering is to create a satisfactory number of seed
crystals to stimulate the total fat phase to crystallize in a steadier
polymorphic state. This in turn will make a more stable product and consequently
a better overall contraction. The most stable form crystals of cocoa butter,
which is the form V, is achieved through systems of heating/cooling (maintained
at 35 °C).

Application in Baking (Shortening)

Bakery
products are amongst the utmost consumed foodstuffs in the entire world. Amongst
them, cakes are generally popular and are thought to be by the consumers as
tasty products with specific sensory characteristics. The
responsibility of fat in manufactured cakes and bakery products in general is
very key equally from the technological point of view and the sensory point of
view. Many bakery products need a reasonably high fat content. Shortenings have
several functions in bakery products; amongst them are: texture, softness,
structure integrity, mouthfeel, lubrication, air entrapment, heat transfer, and
prolonged shelf life.

 

Applications in ice creams

Ice cream
is a colloidal complex food, which comprises of fat globules, air bubbles, and
ice crystals distributed in an aqueous phase of high viscosity comprising of
proteins, salts, sugars, and polysaccharides. Therefore, ice cream is concurrently
an emulsion (fat globules), a sol (ice crystals), and a foam (air bubbles). Ice
cream usually contains about 30 % of ice, 50 % of air, 5 % of fat, and 15 % of
sugar solution in volume; therefore, it is comprised of all states of matter:
solid (ice and fat), liquid (sugar solution), and gas.

 

Applications in bread making

Fats are
used in bread making to advance gas retention in the dough and thus increasing
its volume and softness, to lubricate, to aerate, and to help heat transfer in
the dough imparting the much-needed texture. The quantity to be added is sorely
dependent on the type of flour (whole meal need higher levels than white). A
fat fraction should remain solid into the dough until the end of fermentation
(45 °C). Numerous kinds of shortenings are used in breads, such as butter,
solid and liquid margarines, oils, and commercial fats.

 

Applications of lipids in frying

The major
use of cooking oil is in frying, where it functions as a heat transfer medium
and contributes flavor and texture to foods. One requirement of a cooking oil
is that it be stable under the very abusive conditions of deep-fat frying,
namely, high temperatures and moisture. In general, oil should be kept at a
maximum temperature of 180°C during frying. Frying food at a temperature which
is too low results in increased fat uptake. Water, which is contributed by the
foods that are fried in an oil enhances the breakdown of fatty acids which
occurs during heating. Hydrolysis results in a poor-quality oil that has a
reduced smoke point, darkened color and altered flavor. During heating, oils
also polymerize, creating a viscous oil that is readily absorbed by foods and
that produces a greasy product. The more saturated (solid) the oil, the more
stable it is to oxidative and hydrolytic breakdown, and the less likely it is
to polymerize.

 

Applications in salad dressing

A major
use of salad oils is in pourable salad dressings. Traditional salad dressings,
some of which are emulsified, consist of a two-phase system of oil and water
with 55-65 percent oil. A salad oil coats the salad ingredients, spreading the flavor
of the dressing that improves the palatability of the salad. The other major
use of salad oils is in mayonnaise and thick salad dressings, which contain 80
and 35-50 percent oil, respectively. The oil in mayonnaise is responsible for
viscosity, whereas the oils in thick salad dressings help to modify the
mouthfeel of the starch paste that thickens the product.

A salad
oil must not contain solid crystals that, when refrigerated, would impart a
waxy, tallow texture, would break the emulsion formed between water and oil, or
would give the product a cloudy appearance. Oils can be winterized, a process
that removes solid crystals formed at refrigerator temperatures.

 

Conclusion

 

The range
of food uses requires a variety of fats and oils with characteristics tailored
to meet these needs. Efforts to modify the composition of fats and oils may be
limited by these various technical requirements.