IntroductionOccupation health (OH) is defined as the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; simply it is total health of all at work, More the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Convention Protocol of 2002 define “occupational disease” covers any disease contracted as a result of exposure to risk factors arising from work activity.No doubt that OH is important issue needs for economic development, social security and health status maintenance thus it’s the role and responsibility of Federal Minister of Labor as competent national authority, also the positive impact of introducing OSH management systems at the organization level both on the reduction of hazards and risks and on productivity is now recognized by governments, employers and workers.The protection of workers against work-related sickness and injuries forms part of the historical mandate of the International Labour Organization (ILO). The ILO’s primary goal is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of safe, freedom, equity, security and human dignity which was summarized as “decent work” which counted as positive factor for productivity and economic growth.These guidelines on OSH have been developed by ILO according to internationally agreed principles defined by the ILO’s tripartite constituent’s approach which provides the strength, flexibility and appropriate basis for the development of a sustainable safety culture in the organizations.Fundamental principles of occupational health and safetyConventions and recommendations on OSH may serve several purposes and acting as: fundamental principles to guide policies for promotion, ,action ,management and general protection measures like categories of workers having particular occupational health needs (women or young workers);protection against specific risks (ionizing radiation, benzene, asbestos); prevention of occupational cancer; control of air pollution, noise and vibration in working environment and measures to ensure safety in the use of chemicals. therefore The ILO has developed voluntary guidelines on OSH management systems which reflect ILO values and instruments relevant to the protection of workers’ safety and health thus close to 80 % of ILO standards and instruments are either wholly or partly concerned with issues related to OSH andHuda abdalwali alsayed Page 3The main legislation on OSH is contained in Labour Code of 1997, List of Factories Decree and OH of 1981 and recently Tobacco Control Law was.Occupational safety and health objectivesConsistent with the OSH policy and based on the initial reviews, measurable OSH objectives should be established, which are: (a) specific to the organization, and appropriate to its size and nature of activity; (b) consistent with the relevant and applicable national laws and regulations, and the technical business obligations of the organization with regard to OSH; (c) focused towards continually improving workers’ OSH protection to achieve the best OSH performance; (d) realistic and achievable; (e) documented and communicated to all relevant functions and levels of the organization; (f) periodically evaluated and if necessary updated.Elements of occupational safety and health management systemAccording to the size and nature of activity of the organization, OSH managementSystem documentation should be established and maintained covering the OSH policy and objectives of the organization, allocation of key OSH management roles for the implementation also the significant OSH hazards arising from the organization’s activities with arrangements for their prevention and control and OSH management system documentation should be clearly written and presented in a way that is understood by those who have to use it; periodically reviewed, revised as necessary, communicated and readily accessible to all appropriate or affected members of the organization.OSH records establishment should be identifiable and traceable and their retention times should be specified, include records arising from the implementation of the OSH management system and from national laws or regulations, records of work-related ill health, incidents and workers’ exposures, surveillance of the working environment and workers’ health and results of both active and reactive monitoring ,also workers should have the right to access records relevant to their working environment and health, while respecting the need for confidentiality.A national framework for OSH management systems consist of:1Initial reviewThe organization’s existing OSH management system and relevant arrangements should be evaluated by an initial review. In the case where no OSH management system exists, or if the organization is newly established, the initial review should serve as a basis for establishing anHuda abdalwali alsayed Page 4OSH management system.The initial review should be carried out by competent persons, in consultation with workers and/or their representatives, as appropriate. It should :(1) identify the current applicable national laws and regulations, national guidelines, tailored guidelines designed to reflect the specific conditions and needs of organization or groups of organizations., voluntary programmes and other requirements to which the organization subscribes;(2) identify and assess hazards and risks to safety and health arising from the existing or proposed work environment and(3) determine whether planned or existing controls are adequate to eliminate hazards or control risks; and(4) analyze the data provided from workers’ health surveillance ,The result of the initial review should be documented ,become the basis for making decisions regarding the implementation of the OSH management system and provide a baseline from which continual improvement can be measured.2System planning, development and implementationThe purpose of planning should be to create an OSH management system that supports as the minimum, compliance with national laws and regulations, the elements of the organization’s OSH management system, and continual improvement in OSH performance which based on the results of the initial review or other available data. These planning arrangements should contribute to the protection of safety and health at work and should include: the preparation of a plans for achieving each objective with defined responsibility and clear performance criteria indicating what is to be done by whom and when and selection of measurement criteria for confirming t the objectives achievement; and provision of adequate human and financial resources and technical support as appropriate.3Prevention and control measuresHazards and risks to workers’ safety and health employee and even to clients should be identified and assessed on an ongoing basis. protective measures should be established and adapted to the hazards and risks encountered by the organization and implemented in the following order of priority:(a) eliminate the hazard/risk;(b) control the hazard/risk at source, through the use of engineering controls or organizational measures;(c) minimize the hazard/risk by the design of safe work systems and administrative control measures;Huda abdalwali alsayed Page 5and(d) where residual hazards/risks cannot be controlled by collective measures, the employer should provide for appropriate personal protective equipment, including clothing at no cost and should implement measures to ensure its use and maintenance.4Evaluation and continual improvementContinuous monitoring and investigation of work-related injuries, incidents , and their impact on safety and health performance with creative process of enhancing the OSH is crucial .What are the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work?According to Act 2005 the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work, which repealed and replaced the Work Act 1989 was brought in to make further provision for the safety, health and welfare of persons at work. This Act clarifies and enhances the responsibilities of employer’s, the self-employed, employees and various other parties in relation to safety and health at work. The Act also details the role of the Health and Safety Authority, provides for a range of enforcement measures that may be applied and specifies penalties that may be applied for breach of OSH.Huda abdalwali alsayed Page 6As the overall annual rate of occupational accidents, fatal and non-fatal, is estimated at 270 million (2006) and 160 million workers suffer from work-related diseases , Ministry of health should make efforts to ensure emergencies and serious dangers and The employer must provide adequate plans and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken in the case of emergency such as provide measures for first aid, fire-fighting and premises evacuation taking into account of the nature of the work being carried out and the size of the place of work, arrange necessary contacts with appropriate emergency services , emergency medical care, rescue work and designate employees who are required to implement these procedures and ensure that all employees have adequate training and equipment available to them. On other hands The employer should tell employee about any risks that require the wearing of protective equipment such as (protective clothing, headgear, footwear, eyewear, gloves) and provision of it on free if it is intended for use at the workplace only, together with training on how to use it, where necessary also employee is under a duty to take reasonable care for his/her own safety and to use any protective equipment supplied.What are my duties as an employee under the 2005 Act?An employee, while at work must:? Take reasonable care to protect the safety of themselves and others who might be affected by their acts and omissions.? Ensure they are not under the influence of an intoxicant or in state might be a danger to themselves.? Co-operate with his or her employer so far as is necessary to enable compliance with the relevant statutory provisions.? Not engage in any improper or dangerous behaviors.? Attend training and undergo such assessment as may be necessary.? To provide protective clothing and equipment where risks cannot be eliminated or adequately controlled.? make correct use of any article or substance provided for use or for the protection of the employee, including protective clothing and equipment and ensure safety arising from risk of use of article or the exposure to noise, vibration, or any other ionizing agent.Huda abdalwali alsayed Page 7? To provide systems of work that are planned, organized, performed, maintained ,revised and prepare emergency plans and procedures so as to be safe and risk free.? To provide information, instruction, training and supervision, where necessary.? To implement the safety, health and welfare measures necessary for protection of employees, as identified through risk assessments and ensuring that these measures take account of changing circumstances and the general principles of prevention.? To prepare to report accidents and dangerous occurrences to the relevant authority.? To obtain the services of a competent person for the purpose of ensuring safety and health at work.? To ensure that all safety measures take into account both fixed term and temporary workers and any measures taken do not involve financial cost to his or her employee.What are the roles of employer in the event of the emergency and imminent danger ?? Inform all employees of the risk and steps taken to protect them.? Refrain from requiring employees to carry out or resume work where still a threat to their safety is.? Ensure that, in the absence of appropriate guidance or instruction, based on the employee’s knowledge and technical means at his or her disposal, the employee must take appropriate steps to avoid the consequences of the danger.? Take action and give instruction for employees to stop work and remove themselves to a safe place.? Ensure that an employee who leaves the place of work in the case of emergency is not penalized because of such action.Reporting accidentsAll accidents in the workplace should be reported to employer, who should record the details of the incident and obliged to report any accident that results in an employee missing three consecutive days at work (not including the day of the accident) to the Health and Safety Authority so reporting will help to safeguard social welfare and other rights which may arise from occupational accident.Huda abdalwali alsayed Page 8Violence in the workplaceThe possibility of violence towards employees should be addressed in the safety statement. For example factors like the isolation of employees and the presence of cash on the premises need to be taken into account. Proper safeguards should be put into place to eliminate the risk of violence as far as possible and the employee should be provided with appropriate means of minimizing the remaining risk, for example security glass more else the Health and Safety Authority has published a booklet for employers on violence in the workplace.AssaultUnder the Non-Fatal Offences against the Person Act 1997 assault is a criminal offence, also an offence if you are made to fear immediate assault. If you have been threatened with assault at work by another employee, you should report the matter immediately to your employer and can also if your employer assaults you also should contact your doctor or seek medical treatment for your injuries. You can also call one of the organizations providing support to victims of crime and apply for compensation by making a personal injuries claim the Safety, also Health and Welfare Work Act 2005 consider the employee may not be victimised for exercising his her rights under safety and health legislation such as making a complaint. This means that the employer may not penalize an employee by dismissal or for example by disciplinary action or by being treated less favorably than other employees.Operational measures to be taken by MOH and Labor Office can influence to make differenceAppropriate legislation and regulations, together with adequate means of enforcement, are essential for the protection of workers’ safety and health. Legislation is the very foundation of social order and justice; without it, or where it is not enforced, the door is wide open to all forms of abuse. Each country should therefore take such measures as may be necessary to protect workers’ safety and health. This may be done by enacting laws or regulations, or by any other method consistent with national conditions and practice, undertaken in consultation with the representative organizations of employers and workers concerned.Huda abdalwali alsayed Page 9The law directly regulates certain components of working conditions and the work environment including hours of work and occupational safety and health, There are also provisions relating to trade unions and collective bargaining machinery, which establish conditions for negotiations between employers and workers.One of the greatest problems regarding labour legislation in many countries including Sudan is its application in practice, therefore important for governments to take the necessary steps to ensure that there is an effective system of labour inspection to make certain that statutory requirements are met. This is often difficult because of a shortage of trained personnel. Another problem relates to the difficulty of dealing with new hazards, bearing in mind the speed at which technology is changing, in some cases such problems can be solved by employers and workers through collective bargaining.ConclusionThe OSH roles and guidance were proper planned and in well way considering all dimensions of work related hazards and on Scope including any man or woman over age of sixteen working or under training in return for an employer’s supervision whether written unwritten, explicit implicit contract including Migrant but unfortunately they are not or partially implement with poor evaluation and management system thus we need the complementary approaches such as Labour inspection and enforcement of legal provisions concerning OSH and working environment should be secured by adequate , legislations, enforcement and collective agreements.