Introduction follow certain moral rules. So, the action is

Introduction

     Ethics
is a subject of social science that is related with moral principles and social
values. ‘Business Ethics’ can be termed as a study of proper business policies
and practices regarding potentially controversial issues, such as corporate
governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social
responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities.

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The study of right and wrong, duty and obligation,
moral norms, individual character, and responsibility. Ethics concern about
personal’s moral judgment about right and wrong. Decision taken inside an
association may be made by people or groups, yet whoever influences them to
will be affected by culture of an organization

In ethics,
normative theories, advise some principle or precept for differentiate proper
or wrong movements these theories can divide into 3 types, virtue ethics, non-
consequential and consequential.

 

 

 

 

Consequential
and Non- Consequential

Consequentialism focuses on the
consequences or results of an action. One of the most well-known forms of
consequentialism is utilitarianism which was first proposed by Jeremy Bentham and his mentee
J.S. Mill. This is about comparing the utility of the consequences of an
action. J.S. Mill proposes this as “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” as
the guiding principle within utilitarianism. Some have argued that this is
flawed as it does not allow for one to be able to follow certain moral rules
and it concentrates too much on the ends rather than the means. 
In
non-consequential (deontology), this theory discussed that consequences should
not enter whether the true moral standards or not moral standard. In deontology,
Immanuel Kant and W.D Ross is well known for deontology.

Deontological ethics focuses on how actions follow certain moral rules. So,
the action is judged rather than the consequences of the action. The biggest
proponent of deontological ethics was Immanuel Kant who said that moral rules should be adhered to if universalizing
the opposite would make an impossible world.

 

 

Consequential

Consequentialism is a theory of normative ethics. It holds that an act is only moral or ethical if it results
in a good conclusion. This is in contrast to deontology, which teaches morality
is based on duty; virtue ethics, which holds that morality is based on a good
character; and ethical relativism, which asserts morality is based on whatever
you want it to be based on.

In philosophy, ethical egoism is additionally
recognized as egoism, holds that moral behavior must be judged thru self-hobby.
Egoism states that the best consequences for the character agent outweigh the
results placed upon others. In egoism, moves can be taken into consideration
ethical for the man or woman if the one taking the action is benefited, even as
any benefit or detriment to the welfare of others is an aspect effect and not
as important because the outcomes for the individual.

Consequentialism is sometimes criticized because it
can be difficult, or even impossible, to know what the result of an action will
be ahead of time. Indeed, no one can know the future with certainty. Also, in
certain situations, consequentialism can lead to decisions that are objectionable,
even though the consequences are arguably good.

Ethical Egoism

Definition of egoism is the view that
morality coincides with the self-interest of oneself or an organization one is
part of.

We should explain about
egoism. There have 3 points about egoism theory, especially personal egoists,
impersonal egoists and psychological egoism. Personal egoists are those people
who are adopt an egoist ethics for themselves but do not make the universal
claim that all individuals should do the same. Impersonal egoists are claim
that the pursuits of one’s self-interest should motivate everyone’s behavior.
Lastly, psychological egoism is the theory of ethical egoism is often justified
by psychology egoism – the belief that human beings are only motivated by
self-interest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Utilitarian

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by
focusing on outcomes. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism holds
that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for
the greatest number. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify
military force or war. It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning
used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and
benefits.
 
Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and
individual rights.  For example, assume a
hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a
heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. If a healthy person wanders into the
hospital, his organs could be harvested to save four lives at the expense of
one life. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest
number.

Utilitarian had 6 factors of regarding utilitarian ,
when selecting among non-obligatory direction of movement , we ought to take
into account the internet really worth of happiness as opposed to sadness
emerge through each direction of action , deliver identical mental analysis to
all self-possibilities , subsequent best figure the net well worth of the
numerous sorts of happiness and agonizing, whatever can be ethically admirable
in a few conditions in the occasion that it convey forward the best alter of
happiness as opposed to struggling for the fine range of people, we have to
look to maximize joy , now not simply fast , but in the destiny, we need to
paintings on what can convey us happiness and in all likelihood not that
deliver suffering to us whilst we lack really and ultimate however not least ,
we should guard in opposition to bias in our utilitarian determine whilst our
self-interests are at wager, and it’s far encouraged to relies upon policies of
thumb.

 

Applicate
to Michael Chong in Consequential

 If we use the
utilitarian by looking the profits and revenue by Jeremy Bentham, Mr. Michael
Chong will ignore the defective products and keep producing the defective
products to all his customers. If ignoring about the issues, the company will
increase company revenue by 30%. Apart from that, Mr. Michael will also provide
1000 job opportunities in Malaysia and it will also improving the brand quality
and company reputation. But theirs is a disadvantage which is customers who
bought the products will affect skin reaction.

 

 

 

Non-Consequential
(Deontology)

       In this theory mentioned that effects
ought now not to join into judging whether tue action are moral right or
otherwise. in this idea there have 2 philosophers, Immanuel Kent and W.D. Ross.
W.D. Ross (1877-1971) is a British philosopher who held our moral experience are
too muddled to be cut down theory of utility or the categorical imperative.

       (1724-1804)
Immanuel Kant’s is a German philosopher and is a non- consequential to ethics.
Immanuel Kant’s ethical principle is perhaps the most influential of all
non-consequentialist strategies. In his view, proper moves have ethical price
handiest if they’re performed with a great will—for obligation’s sake alone. the
beef of Kant’s principle is the specific crucial, a principle that he
formulates in three variations. the first model says that a movement is right
if you may will that the maxim of movement finally ends up a moral law applying
to all parents. A movement is permissible if its maxim can be universalized (if
all of us can continuously act on it) and you will be willing to have that
appear. The second model of the explicit vital says that we ought to
continually treat human beings as results in themselves and by no means simply
to give up.

       The first
categorical imperatives seem to strengthen that our moral actions ought not to
be led by the sense of duty to Universal Law. It just need us to plane
ourselves in the shoes of the receiving party before acting. It’s call upon us
to put aside self-interest. According to Beauchamp and Bowie (2004, P.23) some
have interpreted Kent to hold categorically that people can never treat other
persons as a, means to their end. This understanding fails to enjoy the
subtleties of the theory. Kant did not categorical ban the use of persons as
means to the ends of other people. He debates only that people must not treat
another particularly as means to their ends.

       There are
few strength and weakness based on the Kent theory. Strengths at Kent theory is
providing some company rules to follow in moral decision making, there also
highlights the importance of intention and acting on principles. The weakness
at Kent theory is Kent said moral rules are without exception, when in reality,
human may not follow them.

       In line
with (1877-1971) W. D. Ross, there are several prima facie obligations that we
can use to decide what, concretely, we ought to do. A prima facie duty is a
responsibility that is binding (obligatory) various things identical, this is,
until it’s miles overridden or trumped with the aid of some other
responsibility or responsibilities. every other way of putting its miles that
wherein there’s a prima facie duty to do something, there’s at least a
reasonably robust presumption in desire of doing it. An instance of a prima
facie obligation is the responsibility to maintain ensures. “until more
potent moral concerns override, one has to keep a promise made.”

via comparison with prima facie duties, our real or
concrete obligation is the responsibility we should carry out within the
specific of choice. something one’s real responsibility is, one is morally sure
to perform it. Prima facie duties relate to real obligations as reasons do to
conclusions of reasoning.

Applicate
to Michael Chong to Non-Consequential

If we used the deontology by Immanuel Kant’s theory.
Mr. Michael Chong will stop producing the defective products. he stated that we
have a duty to play towards fellow human beings , its cannot just based on the
consequences . In this theory, Mr. Michael Chong should stop manufacture
defective product and stop selling it. This is because he care about his
customers.

 

Virtue Ethics

 

Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that
emphasize the role of character and virtue in moral philosophy rather than
either doing one’s duty or acting to bring about good consequences. A virtue
ethicist is likely to give you this kind of moral advice: “Act as a virtuous
person would act in your situation.”

Most virtue ethics
theories take their thought from Aristotle who declared that a virtuous person
is someone who has perfect man or woman traits. These trends derive from herbal
inner tendencies, however want to be nurtured; but, once hooked up, they will
grow to be strong. as an example, a virtuous man or woman is someone who is
type across many conditions over a lifetime because is her character and now
not because of the truth she wants to maximize software program or gain favors
or honestly do her obligation. unlike deontological and consequentialist
theories, theories of distinctive feature ethics do not purpose frequently to
identify frequent ideas that may be achieved in any ethical. And distinctive
feature ethics theories cope with wider questions— “How must I stay?” and “what
is the good life?” and “What are right own family and social values?”

Advantage of Virtue
Ethics are creating the good human being. Virtue Ethics try to create the best
or virtuous human being, not just good action or regulation and just a robot
who takes after renew regulations or a person who acts on whim or tries to
accomplish good consequences.

Disadvantages of virtue
ethics have a question of do human beings have an end? One of Aristotle’s first
assumptions is all of the things have a purpose or end which they want. He then
goes on to say the end of human life is joyful, and that all people aim at that

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, I will advise to Mr. Michael to stop
selling the defective product this is because customers will get skin cancer
from his defective products. When he sells the defective products, the company
revenue and reputation will decrease based on the issues. Some customer will
complain and sue his company for what he did. Even though,Mr. Michael want to
make profits with his products, he must think of human safety. He also must get
approval or certificate from government in order to proof that his products is
safe to consume or use.

Reference
1.  http://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/utilitarianism

2.  http://people.wku.edu/jan.garrett/ethics/rossethc.htm

3.  http://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/consequentialism

4.  https://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/

Books

1.     
Beauchamp, T. and Bowie, N. (2004).
Ethical theory and business. New York: Pearson Education.