For the world have some major production for food

For
the discussion, this article helps to change our knowledge of the hypothesis
because the results show how the climate will affect how farmers and
conservationists will decide if they should convert protected lands which have
a wealth of biodiversity to lands for farm use. It also shows how farm lands
already being used are not threatened to be converted to conservation land
because they still have a use even if the climate will affect it in the future
from what the data shows. It also shows that the land being conserved was less
likely to be used for farm land. Compared to other studies this information can
be shown to be credible. When looking at other related articles that are
similar to this one it can be shown that the human population and climate
change will affect future uses of cropland and conservation efforts towards
biodiversity of protected locations. The ideas of this study help make it clear
that there will need to be plans for adaptation for climate change. There will
need to be some way to identify what land could be used for agriculture and
what land needs to be used for conservation for the sake of biodiversity in
those specific locations in Africa. This is a demonstration related to other
areas in the world as well because many other areas in the world have some
major production for food and some kind of land being conserved for
biodiversity of those areas. Climate change needs to be considered when looking
at agriculture for farmers and biodiversity of protected areas. That is the
information presented from what was studied in the article.

            The important finding of
this study showed how much wheat and corn needed to be grown to produce a
benefiting income for the farmers and it showed how precise the results were
for the locations and for charges the farmers had to pay for. The results also
show that the crop utility of the lands to be conserved were unlikely to be
used for agriculture and the results also show that the farmlands already being
utilized had a good crop utility as they were. The results are presented using
maps defining where protected areas, priority areas, wheat farms, and corn
farms are. The map charts were used to predict utility for agriculture. There
is also a box and whisker chart showing agricultural (Crop) utility and a
break-even chart to show how land ruggedness would affect the production of
crops which would correlate with income for the farmers. From what was shown in
the study, this is raw data, not summarized data. The results of this study
help to prove the hypothesis which will be presented next.

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For
methods, the organisms being studied are the crops maize (corn) and wheat which
are a popular crop in Africa (mainly the areas where these plants are being
grown in the area specified in Africa) and the types of environment they would
thrive in. The area being studied is the area at the bottom of Africa which is
pictured in figure one. The variables that are being measured in the article
are crop utility of the land which is means how likely or less likely the land
will be used presently which is shown and how likely or less likely it will be
used in the future. Otherwise known as the likelihood that the land will be
used for agriculture and farming because it may need to be altered due to a
change in the climate. This will also go for areas that are protected for
biodiversity.  Other variables included
in the data are different types of corn and wheat lands to be used or that are
being used. Ones not being used are either protected or highly restricted for
protection. There is also the variables for ruggedness for the crop yields too
to guess the likelihood that a location will or was being used for farming.
Ruggedness “zero” would be flat land features like plains. For replicates,
there was 1000 repeats to find the mean logistic regression. Statistical
analysis being used are a 2-pedictor model to measure the net income for each
crop being farmed in tons. The study also uses DSSAT4.5 model along with 36 scenarios
for the reactions of crops to different weather circumstances. This was all for
predictions what would happen to lands specified in Africa.

            Next, the context of study is based on how climate change
is affecting biodiversity conservation efforts. The theory being examined is climate
change and how the conservationist are going to need to learn how to figure out
how to deal with the climate changes for biodiversity and for farmers who have
an impact due to how farming affects biodiversity. This is because farming
requires land and to get land a habitat has to be removed so that crops can be
planted in the specified location. Others aspects that would add to the loss is
how humanity is increasing constantly with its population which was also stated
in the introduction. At the beginning of the introduction it states that
climate change will make it harder to have a plan to conserve biodiversity
because it will change where species are able to thrive (shifts), how many
individuals will be in specific areas, and how farming unsettles natural groups
(communities). This is the hypothesis stated differently in my words. The article
does not mention anything of other studies conducted on this subject because there
is not as much attention to the topic. This is described at the beginning of
the abstract. One article that would be related to this topic would be “Using
Strategic Foresight to assess conservation opportunity” by C.N. Cook et al
which was cited 13 times when it was published in 2014. This article can also
be found in the journal of Conservation Biology. It talks about foreseeing
future problems to make a plan for conservation of protected lands.

Starting with the impact
factor of the entire journal which is a 4.842 as of 2016 which was verified
using Clarivate analytics. It is also connected to the Web of Science which is
a credible source. It is a science citation index. From its publication date
the journal article appears to have been cited 7 different times and this was
also verified using Clarivate Analytics. Its publication date was that of the
year 2014. A recent research paper that has cited this article is called
“Biodiversity scenarios neglect future land-use changes” which has already been
cited 17 times and was published in 2016 by the authors Titeux et al.