CHINA information technology. 3S integration will promote GIS to

CHINA UNIVERSITY
OF GEOSCIENCES BEIJING

 

SCHOOL
OF EARTH SCIENCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES

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ASSIGNMENT

 

3S Technology
Integration and Application Design

 

 

 

 

 

SUBMITTED TO

PROF.
CHEN JIANPING

 

SUBMITTED BY

UMAIR
RASOOL (??)

(Student ID No. 9101160002)

 

MS
In “Detection of Earth and Information Technology”

 

 

      
                 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

PART-1

 

3S TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION DESIGN

 

1.     
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                   

1.1             
WHY
3S…?  

                                                           

2.     
OBJECTIVE OF
THIS STUDY                                                                

 

3.     
POWER TOOLS OF
THIS TECHNOLOGY

3.1       REMOTE SENSING (RS)

3.2       GROUND POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

3.3       GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

 

4.      USE OF “S” TECHNOLOGY

PART-2

 

 DISASTER
PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  

REMOTE SENSING
AND GIS CONTRIBUTION TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE IF NATURAL HAZARD

 

1.     
INTRODUCTION

 

2.     
LITERATURE
REVIEW

 

3.     
METHODOLOGY

3.1       UTILITY OF REMOTE SENSING DATA

3.2       DATA AND ITS PERTICULER USE FOR
LANDSLIDING MAPPING

3.3       MAPPING AND RECOGNITION OF LANDSLIDE

 

4.     
GEOMORPHOMETRY
OF LANDSLIDE

 

5.     
INVESTIGATION OF
LANDSLIDE BY LiDAR DERIVED DEMs

 

6.     
DISCUSSION

 

7.     
CONCLUSION

 

8.     
REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART-1

 

 

3S
TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION DESIGN

 

 

 

 

1.    
INTRODUCTION

3S
refers to remote system, global positioning system and geographic information
system. 3S integrated technology refers that RS, GPS and GIS are integrated a
united organism and it is a very effective space information technology. 3S
integration will promote GIS to obtain the ability of accurate acquisition and
rapid positioning on current remote sensing information. It can realize rapid
updating of database. Under support of analyzing decision model, GIS can
rapidly complete multiple dimensions and multiple elements compound analysis. GPS
can rapidly and accurately realize precise positioning of disaster area, border
characteristic point positioning and observing subsidence observation point. The “3S” technology is effectively
applied in geosciences research, and new theories, new viewpoints, new
algorithms and techniques are introduced to enrich the scientific research
skills.

The
high-tech (computer, aerospace and aviation technology) and geosciences are
closely integrated with each other to solve the major problems in the field of
geosciences with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS), Geodetic
Positioning System (GPS) and Remote Sensing Information System (RS) Discipline
issues, improve quantitative forecast theory, the establishment of the corresponding
technical method system. It provides technical possibility for the realization
of new theory and method.

Keywords:
3S Technology, Remote sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and
Global or Ground Positioning technology (GPS).

 

 1.1      WHY 3S…?

In
last few decades the 3S technology allowed us detailed study and analysis of
earth features related to human and environment, related to land surface and
subsurface features. 3S technology integrates the development of human activity
and thinking approach and fulfills the requirements of human and industry. The
combination of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) allowed us to interpret the quantity of
information’s, which are abstract from different algorithmic method’s and
specialized software’s  and co-relate
this information with literature. In this integration system, the Global or
Ground Positioning technology (GPS) is mostly apply for real time locating,
supplement surveying of plot and attribute updating; Remote sensing (RS) image
treatment technology is mainly apply for the geometry rectification, geometry
treatment of remote sensing image and Geographic Information System (GIS) is
treat graph data which is in vector form, carry out drawing analysis.

 

2.    
OBJECTIVE
OF THIS STUDY

1.     
To get the basic information and overview
about 3S technology integration and built a systematic procedure for further
study.

2.      To
know the most important application and software’s for visibility analysis.

3.      To
know the basic methods and procedures to drive the most important parameters
and get the appropriate information.

 

3.    
POWER
TOOLS OF THIS TECHNOLOGY

There are 3 main
tools or parts of this 3S technology. This can be defined as:

3.1         
REMOTE
SENSING (RS)

1.     
The art, science, and technology of
obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment,
through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting imagery and
digital representations of energy patterns derived from noncontact sensor
systems (Colwell, 1997).

2.      “Remote
sensing is the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring information about
the Earth’s surface without actually being in contact with it. This is done by
sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing,
and applying that information.”

3.     
Remote sensing can be defined as any
process whereby information is gathered about an object, area or phenomenon
without being in contact with it.

3.2       GROUND POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

GPS,
or the Ground Positioning System, is a global navigation satellite system that
uses at least 24 satellites, a receiver and algorithms to provide location,
velocity and time synchronization for air, sea and land travel. The satellite
system consists of six earth-centered orbital planes, each with four
satellites. GPS works at all times and in almost all weather conditions. This
post answers “What is GPS?” and explains how it works.

In general,
there are five key uses of GPS:

Ø  Location    —       determining
a position.

Ø  Navigation
—      getting from one location to
another.

Ø  Tracking    —       Monitoring
object or personal movement.

Ø  Mapping    —       creating
maps of the world

Ø  Timing       —       making
it possible to take precise time measurements.

GPS is extremely
relevant today and used in numerous industries for preparing accurate surveys
and maps, taking precise time measurements, tracking position or location, and
navigating.

 

3.3       GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

GIS stands for Geographic Information System. In practical
terms, a GIS is a set of computer tools that allows people to work with data
that are tied to a particular location on the earth. Although many people think
of a GIS as a computer mapping system, its functions are broader and more
sophisticated than that. A GIS is a database that is designed to work with map
data.

 

Output and display

Other data input

Analysis model

Positioning data

 DLL

 DLL

 In

 Out

 DLL

 DLL

        GIS

      
GPS

Data transform

Interface
based on VB

RS

 

Image disposes and identify

Data dispose and transform

Flow diagram for 3S technology
integration

4.     USE OF “S” TECHNOLOGY

       “S” technology is widely used in different field
of industry and environment and from this “S” technology; the most important is
Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning
System (GPS) and normally refers as “3S” technology.

Some
important widely used sides are:

Ø  City
planning  

Ø  Dynamic  Monitoring  

Ø  Resource
evaluation

Ø  Environmental
monitoring  

Ø  Water
conservancy project

Ø  Oil
and gas exploration  

Ø  Marine
survey  

Ø  Disaster
prevention and control  

Ø  Government
decision making  Administration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART-2

 

 

DISASTER
PREVENTION AND CONTROL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS CONTRIBUTION
TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO NATURAL GEO HAZARD

 

1.       
INTRODUCTION

In
the last decade the use of remote sensing data for landslide identification,
detection and monitoring has expanded significantly, mostly as a result of the
increased availability of very high resolution sensors and improvements in
computer processing. Therefore integration of remote sensing data into
landslide investigations has been a scientific practice now for several years.
Results of research and studies related to the advancement of applications for
landslide identification techniques are available in recent literature
including research reports journal articles and conference proceedings. As a
geological hazard, landslides result in extensive damage to both property and
lives. An essential component of planning for future land use for economic activity
and the prediction of possible landslide zones is the identification of those
areas that are vulnerable to future landslides.

“It is important to distinguish between the terms
disaster and hazard. A potentially damaging phenomenon (hazard), such as an
earthquake by itself is not considered a disaster when it occurs in uninhabited
areas. It is called a disaster when it occurs in a populated area, and brings
damage, loss or destruction”.

 

2.       
LITERATURE
REVIEW

About one quarter of the natural disasters in the world
seems to be directly or indirectly related to landslides, due to rainfall,
local downpour, earthquakes and volcanic activities, etc (Hansen, 1984).
“When, Where and What scale ” of landslides are important aspects in
prediction. The problem is especially critical in developing countries where
warning and protection measures are particularly difficult to implement due to
the limitation of economic conditions. Many research activities have been
carried out for landslide prediction, using various kinds of spatial map data
(e.g. Carrara, 1983; Chung et al., 1995, 1999; van Westen, 1993; Wan, 1992).
Recently, satellite remote sensing data are also applied to the slope stability
evaluation (Obayashi et al., 1991, 1999).

One the latest and
newly remote sensing technique that is undergoing nowadays is Light Detection
and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. LiDAR provide very high resolution topography
of surface which is affected by landslide, debris slide and rockfall
displacement. LiDAR can provide high-resolution point
clouds of the topography and has demonstrated a great potential for monitoring
landslide or rockfall displacements (McKean & Roering 2004; Ardizzone et al. 2007; Teza et al. 2007; Abellan et al. 2010).

An overview
of the different applications of LiDAR techniques for landslide investigations
was given in Jaboyedoff et al. (2012). By literature review, we can notify how LiDAR-derived DEMs can
be useful for investigate hazards like landslide detection and characterization
of mass movement, hazards assessment modeling and susceptibility mapping.  

In order to actively
and effectively develop geological disaster prevention work, take feasible
prevention measures, avoid and reduce losses which are caused by geological
disaster to people’s life and property, it is necessary to apply advanced
technology to set up a comprehensive functional geological disaster database system
and realize science, information, standardization and visualization of
geological disaster prevention management.

 

3.       
METHODOLOGY

Satellite imageries,
data and digital elevation models (DEM) data are used for the generation of an
image based GIS. They are combined with different geo data and other thematic
maps. This included an inventory of geophysics, geologic and geomorphologic and
of land use data.

 

3.1       UTILITY OF REMOTE SENSING DATA

The
spatial and spectral resolutions of the remote sensing data are applicable to
apply for landslide studies.

Many remote
sensors are provides data that is related to this study, some important and
mostly used remote sensors are defined below:

Ø  The
IRS PAN and LISS-IV data with 5.8m resolution and high resolution IKONOS (1m)
and Quick Bird (0.6m) data provides better interpretation for landslide
mapping.

Ø  The
sentinel-2 data with 10m resolution also provides better interpretation for
landslide mapping.

Ø  The
landsat 7 and landsat 8 ETM+ satellite data, which were launched by USGS are
also providing very high resolution imagery for better interpretation of land
surface and hazards. 

Ø  Advancement
in digital image processing has provided additional tools such as data fusion
or data merging, enhancement, classification and accuracy assessment
techniques.

 

3.2       DATA AND ITS PERTICULER USE FOR LANDSLIDING MAPPING

Landslide inventory mapping uses:

Ø  Aerial
photo

Ø  Satellite
interpretation

Ø  Ground
survey, and/or

Ø  A
database of historical occurrences of landslides.

These landslide inventory maps are not
standardized. They are published at different scales with various levels of
details.

 

Date Type

Description

Specific Use

Remote Sensing

IRS Satellite/Sensor

Resolution

Land use land cover,
lineament, drainage and
landslide distribution

IRS-1C-LISS-III

23.5 m

IRS-1D-PAN &
LISS-IV

5.8 m

Sentinel 2

10 m

 
Topographic Map

 
 Scale :   
  1:50000 & 1: 25000
IRS-1D-PAN &
LISS-IV

DEM, slope, aspect and
drainage

Geological
Map (GSI)

                     
 Scale :                     1:250000

Lithology

 
Field Data

 

 
Landslide distribution,
lithology and land use
land cover

 

3.3       MAPPING AND RECOGNITION OF LANDSLIDE

The mapping of
landslides from remote sensing images depends on the spatial resolution of the
images in relation to the size of the features which are characterizing the
slope movement and which can be recognized or identified.

The following aspects are important for
recognizing landslides from remote sensing images:

Ø  Contrast

Ø  Size
of landslide

Ø  Interpretation
method (Monoscopic / Stereoscopic)

Ø  Professional
experience of the interpreter

 

4.       
GEOMORPHOMETRY
OF LANDSLIDE

Morphometric
characteristics of landslides are measured directly from DEM or calculated from
other parameters. They include: landslide area (A), maximum length (L),
horizontal length (Lh), maximum width (W), L/W ratio, maximum height above sea
level (Hmax), minimum height above sea level (Hmin), vertical range (H = Hmax –
Hmin), slope (S), aspect (A), travel angle (?), main scarp height (h), main
scarp slope (s), Topographic Wetness Index range (TWImax – TWImin).

 

 

5.       
INVESTIGATION
OF LANDSLIDE BY LiDAR DERIVED DEMs

In LiDAR-derived DEMs,
the DEMs are the raster representation, in which each grid cell records the
elevation of the earth’s surface, and reflects a view of terrain as a field of
elevation values. The data are in the digital form with x, y and z. The
airborne LiDAR data-set consists first pulse returns.

For remove the noise, a
special analyst tool from ARCGIS are applied and then further classify the
objects that allowed us to detect and interpret particular objects from the study
area.  Then the DEMs is applied for
further tectonic geomorphologic analysis, visual interpretation and landslide
investigations. These DEMs was calculated based on the entire point set by
adapting the influence of the individual input points.

 

 

6.       
DISCUSSION

The DEMs of the study
area has allowed detection of more informative landslide features than the
coarse-resolution (e.g. 20 m or 30 m) DEMs derived from traditional techniques
such as aerial photographs and topographic maps and other remote sensing
techniques. LiDAR data has processed to reveal the
topography beneath vegetation (James et al. 2006). It has proven to be useful in identifying tectonic fault
scarps, folds and to generate a high quality of the DEM derivatives such as
river networks (Haugerud & Harding 2001; Haugerud et al. 2003; Sherrod et al. 2004), previously unmapped landslides and other geomorphic
landforms.

The strength of using airborne LiDAR
point cloud data as compared to other techniques is to generate the DEMs.
Still, it becomes a challenge for the users to develop a software tool to
detect landslides automatically. Geological features, such as bedding and
layering can sometimes be mistaken for instability as compared to field
verification; it is always an essential component of the process.

 

 

 

7.       
CONCLUSION

It is evident that the
use of Remote Sensing and web-based Geographic Information Systems along with
related geodata may assist authorities to take action, minimizing the impact of
earthquakes and other disasters to society as well as the natural and built
environments. In fact, these tools may efficiently support the organization of
public protection activities.

With the advancement in remote sensing
technologies, high resolution data such as ChinaSat-16, landsat 8 and
sentinel-2 are of immense use for accurate landslide and terrain feature
extraction for such studies.

DEMs derived from LiDAR are much more
useful rather than other data sets. Extracting DEMs from other data sets like
ASTER DEMs with 30m to 90m resolution creating difficulties for extracting the
topographic features and landslide hazard mapping.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

1.     
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2.     
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6.     
Eckert,
S., Kellenberger, T., Itten, K., 2005. Accuracy assessment of automatically
derived digital elevation models from ASTER data in mountainous
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7.     
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8.     
McCalpin,
J., 1974. Preliminary age classification of landslides for inventory mapping:
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9.     
Nichol,
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