CHAPTER paper also focuses various applications of this system

CHAPTER 2

 

LITERATURE
REVIEW

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2.1       Introduction

This chapter will explain the concept and
theory of the project as a complete project. The aim of this study is to
explain the methods used to produce the project based on concepts used or
existing. This study is very important for solving the problems faced by the
projects as well as guidance and reference for the implementation. This chapter
will also review existing projects and will also be described specification of
components and capabilities of this project.

 

2.2       Previous Project

The concept and the basic design of this project are based on
several similar things projects that have the same function to charge mobile
phones by inserting coins. The project titled Coin Insert Mobile Charger by using Arduino for controller, authored in February 2017 by Aditya Kamath,
Aniket Kulkarni, Kumar Akshay, Raju Kasturi and Nashat Ablur.

 

         Among the
features of this project is coin-based mobile charging system provides an
alternative solution to all mobile users to charge their mobile phones during
travel or in an emergency where they can have no conventional power bank. This
system can also be implemented in the complex of businesses and colleges where
mobile phone is not allowed. The system is based on Arduino UNO microcontroller
that controls the entire system including
password-based security provisioning for mobile phone, once inserted into slot.

 

       
This paper also focuses various applications of this system and how this
system can be integrated to add more features, sustainability and reliability
in it and solve major problems faced by people related to their phone charging.
Scope of the future the system also revolves around the implementation of this
system in rural areas where there is a continuous power failure.

 

        
Another project was entitled Coin Based Universal Mobile Battery
Charger, authored in June 2012 in the website name www.iosrjen.org. The
coin-based mobile battery charger developed in this paper is providing a unique
service to the rural public where grid power is not available for partial/full
daytime and a source of revenue for site providers. The coin-based mobile
battery charger can be quickly and easily installed outside any business
premises. The mobile phone market is a vast industry, and has spread into rural
areas as an essential means of communication.

 

       
While the urban population uses more sophisticated mobiles with good
power batteries lasting for several days, the rural population buys the
pre-owned mobile phones that require charging frequently. Many times, battery
becomes flat in the middle of conversation particularly at inconvenient times
when access to a standard charger isn’t possible. The coin-based mobile battery
chargers are designed to solve this problem. The user must plug the mobile
phone into one of the adapters and insert a coin; the phone will then be given
a micro-pulse for charging. It does not bring a mobile from ‘dead’ to fully
charged state.

 

        
The charging capacity of the mobile is designed with the help of
pre-defined values. It is, of course, possible to continue charging the mobile
by inserting more coins. This compact and lightweight product is designed to
cater for the growing number of rural mobile users worldwide. A suitable
microcontroller is programmed for all the controlling applications. The source
for charging is obtained from direct power grid and solar energy in case of
non-availability of grid power.

2.3       Description of Component

In
this project the list of hardware components used are given below:

·        
Coin
Acceptor

·        
Arduino
UNO

·        
LCD
Display

·        
Relay

·        
Adapter
12V

 

2.3.1   Coin Acceptor

The coin insertion machine is a module
which detects the coins and sends the value to the Arduino board or any other
microcontroller. The working principle of the coin insertion machine is based
on image processing techniques. Proper programming is essential for working of
this project. Whenever using the machine for the first time, it needs to
provide the values for the coin being inserted.

 

       
Here a machine is proposed which can detect up to 6 coins i.e. 10cent
new, 20cent new, 50cent new, 10cent old, 20cent old and 50cent old coin.
Initially it is an essential need to insert this coin inside the machine for many
times and assign a value to that coin. Upon entering the coin, the sensor
present inside the machine captures the image of the coin. After that, it is
essential to insert the same coin number of ways so that the machine sensor
will capture all those images. Based on image processing techniques and after
assigning a value to that coin, the machine detects properly all the coins. The
coins which are fake or different will be rejected by the machine and the coins
which are accepted will be stored in the coin-box which is present inside the
system. Hence the coin insertion based module is very efficient to detect the
coins and give output value accurately.

Figure
2.3.1.1 Multi Coin Acceptor Selector – programmable 6-coin type (HS616)

 

 

 

2.3.2   Arduino UNO

     
i.       
Introduction of Arduino

An open source electronic platform based on
not hard to use hardware and software it is Arduino. It’s intended for anyone
making interactive projects. Arduino can take inputs from many sensors attached
to it & can provide output to many lights, motors and others. There is no
pre-requisite knowledge of advance electronics for operating Arduino. All you
should know is basic electronics and C programming language. The main Arduino
platform contains a Hardware Board called Arduino Board & Arduino IDE
software to program it. Other external hardware like Sensor Modules, Motors,
lights etc. could be attached with the board.

·        
Arduino
UNO

·        
Arduino
MINI

·        
Arduino
YUN

·        
Arduino
MEGA

      
The most common Board used is Arduino UNO. “UNO” means one in Italian
and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0. Uno board and
version 1.0 Arduino Software (IDE) explains the Arduino reference version, now
evolving into newer releases.

 

Who create Arduino UNO?

       
Arduino began in 2005 as a student project at the Ivrea Institute for
Interactive Design in Ivrea, Italy. At this point the program participants use
the “BASIC Stamp” for $ 100, which is considered as a high cost for
students. The name “ARDUINO” comes from the Ivrea bar, the founder of
the project he meets. Massimo Banzi, one of the founders, sat in Ivrea. The
bar, named Arduin Ivrea, Ivrea margrave and the Italian king from 1002 to 1014.
Colombian student, Hemando Barragan has created a cable platform that serves as
a base for Arduino. After installing a conductive platform, an easier and less
expensive version is made and available to open source communities; related
attributes, including David Cuartielles, promote this idea. Arduin’s main teams
are Massimo Banzi,Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, David Cuartielles, and David
Mellis

Figure 2.3.2.1
The Arduino’s initial core team consisted of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles,
Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis.

 

 

  ii. Description
of Arduino UNO

Arduino UNO

Arduino
is an open source platform used to build electronic projects. Arduino consists
of two physical programmable circuit boards (often referred to as
microcontroller controllers) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated
Development Environment) running on your computer, used to write and upload
computer code to physical boards. The Arduino platform has become very popular
with people who are just starting out with electronics, and for good reason.
Unlike most pre-programmed circuit boards, Arduino does not need a separate
piece of hardware (called a programmer) to load a new code into the board – you
can only use a USB cable. In addition, Arduino IDE uses the simplified version
of C ++, making it easier to learn the program. Finally, Arduino provides
standard form factors that break down the functions of the micro controller
into more accessible packages.

 

 

Figure 2.3.2.2 Arduino Uno

 

 

 

 

 

Arduino
UNO Board

Figure 2.3.2.3 Arduino UNO Model Descriptions

 

 

 

 

Description

Power
(USB / Barrel Jack)

Each Arduino board requires
a way to connect to the power source. Arduino UNO can be powered from a USB
cable coming from your computer or a wall power supply (like this) that is
terminated in barrels of barrel. In the diagram above the USB label is labeled.
The barrel is labeled.

 

          The USB connection is also how you
will load the code into your Arduino board. Pins (5V, 3.3V, GND, Analog,
Digital, PWM, AREF). Arduino pin is the place where you connect the wire to
build the circuit (possibly along with the bakery and certain wires) they
usually have a black plastic ‘sharp head’ that lets you plug the wire into the
board. Arduino has several types of pins, each labeled on the board and used
for different functions.

 

• GND: Short for ‘Ground’. There are several GND pins on the
Arduino, which can be used to horizontally your circuit.

• 5V & 3.3V: As you might imagine, 5V pins supply 5 volt power,
and 3.3V pins supply 3.3 volt power. Most components are easy to use with
Arduino running happily 5 or 3.3 volts.

• Analog: Under Analog label ‘Analog Inside’ (A0 via A5 on UNO) is
an In-Analog pin. These pins can read signals from analog sensors (such as
temperature sensors) and turn them into digital values we can read.

• Digital: Some of the analog pin are digital pins (0 to 13 at UNO).
This pin can be used for both digital inputs (such as telling if the button is
rejected) and digital output (such as turning on the LED).

• PWM: You may have seen tilde (~) next to some digital pin (3, 5,
6, 9, 10, and 11 in UNO). This pin acts as a regular digital pin, but can also
be used for something called Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM).

• AREF: Stand for Analog Referrals. Most of the time you can leave
this pin alone. It is sometimes used to specify external reference voltage
(between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for analog input.

 

 

Reset
Button

Arduino has a reset button. Pushing it will
temporarily, connect the reset pin. It is same with the original Nintendo.
Restart any code loaded on the Arduino. This can be very useful if your code is
not repeated, but you want to test it multiple times. Unlike the original
Nintendo however, blowing on the Arduino usually does not fix any problems.

 

Power
LED Indicator

Just below and at the right of as the word
“UNO” on your circuit board, there is a small LED next to the as a
word ‘ON’. This LED requirement when you install your Arduino becomes a power
source. You will be able to detect something wrong, if this light is not lit.

 

TX
RX LEDs

TX is short for sending, RX is short for
acceptance. These signs appear to be somewhat in electronics to indicate the
pin responsible for serial communication. In our case, there are two places in
Arduino UNO where TX and RX appear – once with digital pins 0 and 1. The second
time next to LED TX and RX indicator, this LED will give us some clues if
Arduino we receive / send data such as when we load a new program onto the
board.

 

Main
IC

Black matter with all metal legs is IC, or
Integrated Circuit. Think of it as our Arduino brain. The main IC at Arduino is
little different from the type of board, but usually from the ATmega IC line of
the ATMEL Company. This is important to you know the type of IC along with your
board type before loading a new program from Arduino software. This information
is usually available in writing at the top of the IC. If you want to know more
about the differences between the various ICs, reading the data sheet is often
a good idea.

 

 

Voltage
Regulator

Voltage regulator is actually not something
you can (or should) interact with Arduino. But it’s potentially useful to know
that it’s there and what it’s there. The voltage controller is not exactly what
it says – it controls the amount of voltage left into the Arduino board. Think
of it as a kind of doorman; it will reject the additional voltage that may
damage the circuit. Arduino has own voltage of limit. Therefore, you should
connect the Arduino to something less than 20 volt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3.3   LCD Display

Figure 2.3.3.1 LCD Display 16×2

 

 

 

Table 2.3.3.1 LCD Display 16×2 Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3.4
Relay

Relay is usually an electromechanical
device driven by an electric current. Current flows in one circuit cause the
closing or opening of another circuit. Relays are like remote control switches
and are used in many applications because of their relative simplicity,
lifelong, and high reliability. Relays are used in a wide range of applications
across the industry, such as telephone exchange, digital computers and
automation systems.

 

Highly
sophisticated relays are used to protect the electric power system against
problems and power outages and control and control power generation and
division. At home, relays are used in refrigerators, washing machines and
dishwashers, and heating and air conditioning controls. Although the relay is
usually associated with an electric circuit, there are many other types, such
as pneumatics and hydraulics. Inputs may be electrical and output directly
mechanical, or vice versa.

 

 

Figure 2.3.4.1 Operation of relay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.3.4.2 Electromagnetic relay

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.3.4.3 Protection diode for relay

 

 

         This active semiconductor device uses
non-magnetic light to launch the switch. The light comes from the LED, or the
light of the diode emitters. All relays contain sensing units, electric coil,
powered by current AC or DC. When the current or voltage used exceeds the
threshold, the coil activates the armature, which operates either to close the
open relationship or open a closed relationship. When the power is supplied to
the coil, it produces a magnetic force acting as a switch mechanism. Magnetic
power, in fact, delivers action from one circuit to another.

 

 

2.3.5
Adapter 12V

The circuit of this prototype needs 5 volts
and the motor needs 12 volt. The function of the Adapter 12V 2A is to convert
the voltage from 230 volts to 12 volts. Adapter is more suitable for this
project compared to battery because the voltage that produced by the adapter is
constant and don’t have a voltage drop.

 

 

 

Figure 2.3.5.1 AC Adapter 12V

2.3.6 Connector

Connectors
are used to join subsections of circuits together. Usually, a connector is used
where it may be desirable to disconnect the subsections at some future time:
power inputs, peripheral connections, or boards which may need to be replaced.
There are different types of connectors; in this project we used few of them.

 

2.4       Chapter Summary

At the end of this chapter, the literature
review of this project has been discussed. This discussion has a convert
project that previously had the same function as our project and the components
used. The previous project helped us in building our ideas and projects. In
addition, we can also learn more about the components we need to use in this
project.