Causes lights and viewers of all classes will be

Causes of street crime?

Economical

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Criminology has the long history but research on the
relationship between crimes and economics remains limited because of some
systematic doubt among many economists on the response of crimes rate to
economy (Ishikawa, 2009). Pakistan’s current economic situation is such that
even though it is now on the upper side of being a $300 billion economy and,
yet resources are still inadequately distributed and with a significant bias in
the prospects for a poor family to grow than it is for a upper class family to
increase its own wealth (with a certain number of them using less than legal
means to achieve this). Unemployment and limited availability of educational
institutions for lower class individuals is also a reason why distraught by the
injustice of it all, many juveniles tend to resort to crime or establishing
contacts with the Mafia syndicate for more ordered crime. Iqbal & Jalil
(2010) developed the relationship between urbanization and crime rates for
Pakistan over the period 1964-2008 and according to them an economic depression
was most likely to see a rise in crime while economic prosperity would significantly
decrease criminal activity. GDP per capita is an essential statistic when
comparing with other countries of how income affects the motives of an average
individual.

Political

Politics has been anything but uncontroversial as a topic in
Pakistan. Media channels portray different politicians in different lights and
viewers of all classes will be glued to their screens looking for an opinion
that confirms something at all but can only make little sense out of it
(especially the lower class). However, one fact everyone seems to grasp is that
having ties to politicians gives you a measure of immunity from law enforcement
and thus many corrupt politicians directly or indirectly are incentives for
small time criminals to continue felonry. In the near past, It has been found
that many political parties have their militant wings, which perpetrates crime
to fund the party. To sum it up political disorder means it becomes very hard
to keep track of criminals using that leverage with police authorities.

Social

As discussed in the economic reasons, crime-sympathetic
individuals normally come from backgrounds of little to no opportunities in
terms of education, employment and parental guidance. There are multiple
studies that show a negative relationship between higher education and crime
since through better education an individual may, not just earn better reducing
the need for crime but also weigh the opportunity cost of the time spent in
criminal activities. Higher education confirms the job opportunities in the legal
sector of economy. The only issue with Pakistan is that education is not
readily a notion everyone appreciates because of reduced awareness in society.
Working lower class families that have work hours ranging from 10-12 hours a
day don’t see the need to educate their children beyond a certain point and
thus creating a circle of labor.

Psychological

Although slightly inter-related with social concerns, this
perspective on criminal behavior explains a little in depth on why
environmental factors or pre-existing mental health problems might lead to a
life in crime. To understand why a person resorts to criminal behavior or
rather behavior that is prohibited by law we need to understand why a person
commits delinquency or behavior contradictory to social norms. The answer is a
lack of awareness and no rules and regulations. Lack of guardian individuals to
oversee your behavior from a tender age (which according to statistics happens
in every slum of Karachi) lead to the person growing up conceited and open to
more risk factors like antisocial behavior, low IQ etc. normalizing even
criminal acts by the time that age has passed. For example, a low social status
in general is very frustrating for most individuals with limited vision (low IQ
or uneducated) to find a way to bridge the gap which is quite substantial in
Pakistan. They would rather prefer to do that the easy way by targeting
affluent areas for organized or unorganized theft or mugging.

History
of street crime in pakistan and prominent previous studies:

There
are many causes of crime. Various economic, cultural and demographic or social
factors determines crime. To curb crimes it is necessary one need to perceive
the meaning and cause of crime.

 “Crime is any act restricted by public law for
the protection of the public. It is punishable by state in a judicial
proceeding.” _Marshall & Clarke(1952)

The definitions
of crime not only define why it occurs at all but also its root cause given
various social, economic, cultural and demographic factors. Economists have
targeted these areas for research since they feel that crime is an amalgamated
outcome of the injustice felt by the underprivileged masses and that is
primarily why felonies and robberies are becoming exceedingly unpredictable.

In 1960s, fisher
started the study on crime, when he concluded that mainly low income and
unemployment in any society determines the level of crime. Becker, (1968)
stated that the rational behavior of criminal act is mostly a weighing of
benefits where an individual has to decide between legitimate and illegitimate
all the while looking at his own current financial state (Conclusion: an
individual commits crime when the expected usefulness of illegitimate activity
increases as compared to the usefulness of legitimate activity). because of
different social and cultural characteristics, reasons for crime vary from
country to country but the root cause for economists has always turned out to
be the above mentioned two determinants.

Ehrlich (another
economist), in 1973, continued on with Becker’s work by finding that there was
a particular amount of time allocation in legal and illegal activities that effects
the crime rate. Ehrlich’s investigation supports Fleisher’s research. Any
change in income of family will lead to a change in crimes like murder, rape,
assault and property crime, and he also found that unemployment was positively linked
to crime rate.

 

The official
statistics in the Punjab show that 3, 83,379 crimes were stated in 2009 whereas
in 2010, the reported crimes reached at 3, 86,437 showing only a slight
increase in crime however, the incidents of rape, gang rape have increased by
22%, robbery, vehicle snatching and burglary by a staggering 109%, kidnapping
by 13% and murder and attempt to murder by 15%, across the Punjab.

Cattle Theft has
seen an up rise since 2004 but the thing to note most is that most of the
crimes committed were in one way or another financially motivated. Very few
studies (namely Gillani et al. (2009) and Jalil & Iqbal, (2010) have
discussed demographics and social factors. The aim of this study was to form an
amalgamated report on the major 25 districts of Punjab.

Street crime in karachi

The last decade
has seen upturns and downturns in terms of street related crime in Pakistan the
overall trend has been upward despite the ever-expanding network of LEA monitoring
the city. In Karachi, thieves mostly commuting on motorcycles strategically
targeting citizens and snatches their valuables on almost a hourly basis. Thousands
of such incidents have been reported in the past month leading to residents
questioning the effectiveness of the security forces’ multiple operations and
crackdowns. Apart from robbery, number of extortion, murder and theft have also
been increasing steadly. In Karachi alone, the total count of various crimes
according to The Citizen’s Police Liaison Committee (CPLC) is as follows:

·       
21701
bikes stolen

·       
15600
cell phones stolen

·       
58
incidents of extortion

·       
347
people lost their lifes

·       
1294
people were deprived of their cars

The Chief minister
of sindh has been very critical of these and ordered crackdowns and
constituting a committee under Law Minister with AG Sindh and Home Secretary to
call on Chief Justice Sindh High Court to dedicate certain courts for
speedy trial of street criminals.

The Safe Cities
Index 2017 is a report from The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) sponsored by
NEC. This report Ranks cities according to internet security, health security,
infrastructure security and personal security. Karachi, has finally been included
in the list of safe cities.

However, Karachi
was called as “Least Safe City in the past. EIU called Karachi as the worst
city to live in the world and security remained the biggest source of problem. A
german group also ranked Karachi as the worst city to own a car due to high
probability of being snatched.