Australia an elementary basis for sociopolitical and economic questions.

Australia is a country located in
Oceania with a population of approximately 19,357,594 people whose native
language is English. It has an area of 7686850km sq and a GDP (gross domestic
product) of 390,113 million dollars. It is one of the largest countries on Earth. Although
it has many natural resources and a lot of fertile land, more than one-third of
Australia is desert. Australia is one of
the world’s most culturally varied nations. Nearly a quarter of the people who
live in Australia were born in other countries. They originate from the United Kingdom and other
European countries, but also from China, Vietnam, North Africa, and the
Middle East.

Media system
in Australia: social responsibility

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Australia’s method to broadcasting
was powerfully affected by the British ‘social responsibility’ model, which wanted
to make sure that a medium with huge power over public opinion was used for
‘the collective good of society’. Because of its immediacy and mass coverage,
broadcasting was realized to have a powerful influence on society, an influence
that traditional governments wanted to connect to raise cultural and
educational values and to reinforce necessary social standards and traditional
models of ethical behavior. This was thought to be particularly necessary
because the limited number of available channels concentrated influence in the
hands of a few people who could use it to pursue their own interests rather
than the well-being of society.

Ethical responsibility in general
refers to doing what is right, just, fair and non-harmful. Media ethics build
an elementary basis for sociopolitical and economic questions. Further they try
to explore the impact of media and their ethical responsibility on human
behavior. Ethics in media and journalism have always been shaped by the social,
technological, and economic structure of news media. CSR and sustainability are
already part of the Austrian media industry. (Mc Quail, 2005)  

   Although cultural differences exist, media organizations
are expected by governments and consumers to demonstrate a duty of care or
corporate social responsibility by acting ethically and, ideally, establishing
their benefit to the community.

    
On 15th December 2014, a regular Monday became a day of terror in a
Sydney café when an ISIS member killed 4 people and took 18 hostages. The
Muslim community in Australia were satisfied by the media coverage of the
attack because they were competent and respectable toward the Islamic culture. For
example, radio presenters were stopping callers on air, when asked about their
opinion of the attack, if they said racist or inflammatory anti-Islamic views. This
represents that Australia is a social-responsibility community and an
anti-racism country.

Who controls
media in Australia?

Media control is supervised by the Broadcasting
Services Act 1992(the BSA) through limits placed on the regulation
of commercial television and radio broadcasting license and associated
newspapers.

The objective is to strengthen diversity in control of the more
influential broadcasting services.

The rules regulate the concentration of control within
broadcasting license areas and across various media. They are classified as:

·        
Statutory
control rules (There are rules that manage how
much control an individual can have over Australian media.)

·        
Media
diversity rules (Media
diversity refers to the potentiality of the people to access and consume a wide
range of viewpoints without any one media owner or controller exercising too
much influence.)

The ACMA is responsible for observing and applying these rules.

Prime Minister Howard’s federal government in Australia declared
in 2002 a new cross media ownership notice. The notice pursued to directive
that print newspapers and television stations owned by the same person must
sustain different decision-making forms. This required for two separate
agencies even in the same city to have discrete editorial staff, policy, and
guidelines. The authority of the Australian Broadcasting Company, David Flint,
was in charge for investigating companies with multiple operations in the same
city to ensure that they were obeying with the recent laws.

Censorship
of media

Australia’s censorship system has always been the subject of
debate. In previous years, there has been an argument over the banning of films
such as Hannibal, Lolita and Romance,
and the beginning of Internet censorship. In addition, there have been new adjustment
to the censorship law and evaluations of the rules are presently being launched.

The Commonwealth Government has the ability to
make laws with consideration to mass communication and imported material, yet
avoiding locally created cases. The recent is under the power of the State
governments. Restriction arrangements have hence changed by the idea of the
material (TV, film, print etc.) and the state or region. A Commonwealth Film
Censorship Board was first decided under the arrangement of the Customs Act in
1917. In 1949 Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania agreed with the
Commonwealth to assign their film censorship powers and tasks to the Commonwealth.
Eventually,  the other States followed.

Various
types of media

Australia
produces about 48 daily newspapers and 223 nondaily newspapers; it also has 104
television stations and 10,150,000 Television sets (receiver). A person in
Australia spends time watching TV for approximately 177 minutes per day also,
radio meets a 138 consumption minutes per day as to consider that Australia has
608 radio stations with 25,500,500 Radio receivers. Six million and six hundred
thousand people in Australia have access to the internet while they consume it
almost 6 minutes per day.

Print media

The first newspaper
in Australia was the Sydney Gazette
and NSW Advertiser .
A government-controlled weekly, its first issue was produced on March 5, 1803.
The printer and editor was former convict George Howe.

In 2000,
there were 48 daily newspapers containing of 10 city newspapers, 2 national and
36 local papers. In addition, 10 weekly newspapers were also published.

The biggest daily newspaper in Australia is
the Herald Sun, distributed in
Victoria (the most densely populated state) by the Herald and Weekly Times, a
News Corp subsidiary. It is a newspaper with a flow of over half a million. The
second largest is the Daily Telegraph of New South Wales, printed by Mirror Australia
Telegraph Publications, also a News Corp property. Its usual spread is 412,000.
The Sydney Morning Herald of New South
Wales, distributed by John Fairfax Publications, is the third leading
newspaper. It is a newspaper with an extent of 223,000.

The Australia Press Council (APC), settled in
1976, was the self-regulatory organization for Australian print
media. It has two aims: to help maintain the freedom of the press and to
encourage the free press to act in an ethical and responsible way toward the
government. strict complaint mechanism were practiced In order to achieve these
goals. Participating newspapers and magazines support the APC, and a 21-member
council that is publishers, journalists, and public members manages it.

TV
and radio

‘Good
evening and welcome to television.’ were Bruce Gyngell first words introducing television
into Australia in 16 September 1956, fifty-two years ago, he greets Sydney
on a night that made history: Television was finally public to Australian
citizens

Australians
had to wait twenty years for TV to finally become accessible after many investigational
broadcasts and protests, a number of royal commands and many politics.

Since
that first transmission, TV has gone ahead to wind up noticeably the most
fascinating news and excitement medium in the country. From less than 100,000
TVs in 1956, there are presently more than 18 million televisions over
Australia.

The government passes on many controlling issues
to Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (ABT) and therefore the Minister of
Communication has substantial control over giving licenses, policy, and control
of strategic planning. During the 1970s and ’80s, the Australian Broadcast Act
of 1942 was revised many times. In 1980 there was an examination of Australian
television content producing in Television Program Standard 14, which states
that 50 percent of prime time programs must be Australian. In the 1990s, the
introduction of pay television was a major policy issue. Several commercial
television stations changed hands, or changed owners, as did several urban
daily newspapers.

Social media in Australia

Social media has converted the way we all use the
internet, Combined with the rise of mobile devices, we are more connected than
ever before.

Many young people involve in social networking on
the internet. Social networking websites—such as MySpace, Facebook, Instagram
and YouTube—provide a medium for young people to express themselves, and share
their experiences and thoughts with similar-minded young individuals around the
world

 Many individuals
and organizations pursuing to promote themselves in the online atmosphere also
participate in leading online social networks. For example, in 2007, Australian
politicians were encouraged to develop their own MySpace profiles to engage
better with younger voters

——–Bloggers and users in social media can be
against the law if they discriminate against, harass, bully or racially vilify a
person.

Inappropriate posts, comments or content shared
on social media can lead to sexual harassment.

Racially
offensive material posted or shared on social media can be a form of racial
hatred.

Employers
can be held legally responsible for acts of discrimination or harassment that
occur in the workplace or in connection with a person’s employment. This can
include posts and comments made or circulated on social media. To minimize
their liability, employers need to demonstrate that they have taken all
reasonable steps to prevent discrimination or harassment from occurring in
their workplaces.

They
can take positive steps to do this by educating employees about appropriate
social media use, providing training on discrimination and harassment and
having a policy that addresses discrimination and harassment in social media
use.