Application in the road. The PCI results appeared that,

 

 

 

 

 

Application of Pavement Maintenance Management
System in Benghazi city Using Micro PAVER Program

 

Bubaker Elmahdi Bensaleh

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Higher
Institute for Engineering Occupation, Benghazi, Libya, E-mail: [email protected]

 

 

ABSTRACT

Benghazi city like
any city throughout Libya, is facing a big challenge dealing with aging its pavement
networks. The current situation reveals that, poor management for its existing
roads network and difficulties in carrying out planning of the maintenance
requirements. This paper aims to present a review of Pavement Management
Maintenance System (PMMS) using Micro PAVER program. The program can provide a
systematic procedure for pavement condition evaluation and can make the best possible
use of resources available and maximize benefits for community. In this paper,
an attempt was made to evaluate the pavement condition of one-kilometer of
Jamal Abd El-Naser Street as a case study using Micro PAVER software. The
results found that, Patching, Alligator Cracking and Longitudinal and
Transverse Cracking are the most common distresses in the road. The PCI results
appeared that, the left direction of the road section is better than the right
direction, the overall PCI of the left direction is 71%, while the Right
direction PCI is 35%. The causes of deterioration on the road were primarily by
load-related distresses while the climate causes comprise the smallest
percentage of distress causes.

 

Keywords: Pavement
Management Maintenance System, Micro PAVER, Pavement Distress, Pavement
Condition Index.

1        
 INTRODUCTION

Roadway network is a main part of any country’s infrastructure, it
provides benefits both to nations and individuals by facilitating the movements
of goods and enabling people to travel from one place to another. The quality
of life, the health of the social system and the continuity of economic and
business activities depend to a large extent on the quality and efficiency of
roads (Beitelmal & Orafy,2010). Deterioration and failure of these roads may occur
because of aging, overuse, misuse and/or mismanagement. Appropriate pavement
maintenance programs can decrease the rate of deterioration, extend life of
pavements, reduce vehicle operating cost and ensure the safety to road users (Jendia , 2004).

Pavement Management Maintenance System (PMMS) is a valuable tool, can
make the best possible use of resources available. Hence, PMMS can be used in
directing and controlling maintenance resources for optimum benefits and
provide a systematic, consistent method for selecting maintenance and rehabilitation
needs and determining priorities and the optimal time of repair by predicting
future pavement condition (Shahin ,1990). The early detection

 

 

 

 

 

of a pavement deterioration proved to produce large savings before the
start of the costly sharp decline in pavement condition as illustrated in
Figure 1.

 

Time
 

Failed

Very Poor

Poor

Fair

Good

Excellent

40%
Drop in quality

75% of life cycle

12% of life

40% Drop in
quality

$1.00 for
rehabilitation here

Will cost $4.00 to
$5.00 here rehabilitation here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Typical pavement life cycle (Shahin
,1990).

2        
Current Pavement Condition
and Management System

Benghazi city represents a major economic center of different
commercial and industrial activities. Since year 1970, the road network in
Benghazi city has witnessed huge achievements in the road infrastructure in
terms of length and quality. There are more than 1,500 kilometers of paved
roads in addition to unpaved roads. The Road network has been carried out by
specialized international foreign contractors, using local materials in
pavement construction and imported materials for other works. As the rest of
the Libyan cities, Benghazi city is suffering from bad conditions of pavement
networks, because no actual maintenance took place in the future. Furthermore,
the current management reveals that, difficulties in developing an adequate
maintenance management system for its existing roads network, insufficient
funds, shortages of skilled and experienced staff or lack of regular training
to update the staff leads to difficulties in carrying out planning and
management of the maintenance requirements of the city highway network (Beitelmal & Orafy,2010).

3        
Micro PAVER Pavement
Management System Overview

The pavement
maintenance management system is a set of tools that helps decision maker to
determine optimum strategies for existing pavement condition by evaluation and
maintenance of the pavement to reserve an acceptable serviceability for a
desired period of time.

PAVER or Micro PAVER
is a comprehensive pavement management system first developed in the early 1970s
by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help the Department of Defense manage
maintenance and rehabilitation needs of military roads. Micro PAVER is
currently used by more than 600 entities including cities, counties, airports,
and private consulting firms. The Micro PAVER possesses capabilities of
pavement network inventory; pavement condition assessment; development of
pavement condition prediction; performing condition analysis;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determination of maintenance and rehabilitation (M) needs; and
analyzing the corresponding different budget scenarios. (US Army Corps of Engineers, 2004).
Following is a brief description of each as used in Micro PAVER:

3.1       
The pavement Network Inventory

The pavement inventory is defined in terms of network, branch, and
section. A pavement section is the smallest management unit for considering a
major maintenance and repair (M) project. Key features to be considered
in section definition are pavement type, structure, construction history,
functional classification (or traffic), and existing condition (Shahin, 2005).
So generally, each pavement network contains the following definitions:

•   Branch: a
branch is considered as a section in the pavement network and also considered
as a single structure and owns a specific role (such as; Individual roads,
parking lots).

•  Section:
Section is considered as a part of a branch; it owns regular properties over
the whole length or area for each section.

•  Sample Unit:
In any pavement network; Sample unit is the smaller unit in this road network.

3.2       
 Pavement Condition Assessment

To evaluate pavement
condition, Micro PAVER uses the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) as its primary
standard. The PCI is a numerical rating of the pavement condition that ranges
from 0 to 100 with 0 being the worst possible condition and 100 being the best
possible condition. ASTM standard practices exist for the PCI for roads (D6433-07).
(ASTM, 1999). The PCI rating is not a direct measure of structural capacity or
road roughness; however, it is an objective tool for assessing the maintenance and rehabilitation needs of a roadway section (Karim et al.,2016).  Calculation of the PCI is based on the
results of a visual condition survey in which distress type, severity, and
quantity are identified as shown in Figure 2. For flexible pavement a total 19
distresses have been tabulated in Micro PAVER system, as displayed in Table 1.
The distress information obtained as part of the PCI condition survey provides
insight into the causes of distress and whether it is related to load, climate
and other. (Shahin, 2005).

 

Figure 2. Pavement Condition Index (PCI)
Rating Scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Paver distress classification for roads and
parking areas (Shahin, 2005).

Code

Distress

Unit

Causes

1

Alligator Cracking

m2

Load

2

Bleeding or
Flushing

m2

Other

3

Block Cracking

m2

Climate

4

Bumps and Sags

m

Other

5

Corrugation

m2

Other

6

Depression

m2

Other

7

Edge Cracking

m

Load

8

Joint Reflection
Cracking

m

Climate

9

Lane-Shoulder
Drop-off

m

Other

10

Longitudinal and
transverse

m

Climate

11

Patching and
utility cut

m2

Other

12

Polished Aggregate

m2

Other

13

Potholes

number

Load

14

Railroad Crossing

m2

Other

15

Rutting

m2

Load

16

Shoving

m2

Load

17

Slippage Cracks

m2

Other

18

Swell

m2

Other

19

Raveling and
Weathering

m2

Climate

3.3       
Pavement Condition Prediction

The Prediction Modeling function in Micro PAVER helps identify and
group pavements of similar construction that are subjected to similar traffic,
weather, and other factors affecting pavement performance. The historical data
on pavement condition can be used to build a model that can accurately predict
the future performance of a group of pavements with similar attributes, Figure 3.

Figure 3. Prediction of future pavement
condition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.4       
Pavement Condition Analysis

The Condition Analysis feature allows users to determine past and
future pavement conditions assuming only localized maintenance will continue
similarly to what was the policy in the past. For each pavement section, the
conditions prior to the last inspection date are determined based on
interpolation between previous inspections and conditions after the last
inspection date are projected based on the assigned family model. The historic
and forecasted conditions can be displayed in tables, graphs, and maps. In Micro
PAVER 5.2 condition can be viewed on GIS maps in addition to tables and graphs,
as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Pavement condition analysis
results displayed in GIS.

3.5       
 Work Planning

The Micro PAVER Work
Plan is a tool for planning, scheduling, budgeting and analyzing alternative
pavement maintenance and repair (M) activities. The M Plan uses
basic inventory data combined with inspection information, maintenance
policies, maintenance costs and predictions of future pavement condition. All
factors used in determining the M can be configured to reflect local
pavement management practices. PAVER 5.2 provides the ability to determine
budget consequence and budget requirements using an iterative process. This
feature enables managers to develop a variety of funding scenarios to support
their decisions, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Comparison of budget scenarios
consequence

 

 

4        
CASE STUDY

In this section, an attempt was made to evaluate the pavement condition
of Jamal Abd El-Naser Street in Benghazi city in term of the current surface distresses.
One kilometer of road length was selected which connect First Ring Road to Third
Ring Road in Benghazi city. A manual survey is performed following ASTM D6433.
Micro PAVER software was applied to evaluate the distresses in the section of the
street using PCI procedure.

4.1       
Description of study area

Jamal Abd El-Naser Street begins from the center of Benghazi and
extended to the south east of the city. It is a two-lane road in two directions
(7 m lane width), and it is an asphalt pavement road with asphalt layer depth is
10 cm. The street was constructed in 1970’s. Figure 6 shows the study area.

 

Figure 6. The study area

4.2       
Pavement Condition Survey

PCI calculations process begin by going into the field and compiling a worksheet
of all pavement distresses with their severities and extents for the selected
section of road. The selected section, described earlier, is divided into
sample units with 100 m long. A manual survey was performed by visual
inspection following ASTM D6433, through using the camera, tape, straight edge
and data sheet, it was recorded a complete information about each distress
point such a distress type, severity, amount. This data is then input into the
Micro PAVER software so that various reports can be generated, so they can
easily be found.

 

 

 

 

 

4.3       
Preparation of Micro PAVER’s Input
data

To assess pavement condition, Micro PAVER software has capability to
perform pavement condition analysis, the desired network/branch/section must be
verified and inspection information of the pavement sections has been entered
to estimate pavement. The PAVER system classifies pavement network to branches
and sections prior to perform condition analysis, as inventory button provides tools
to view, edit, and define pavement networks. The following figures (Figure 7 through
Figure 10) demonstrate the steps of applying Micro PAVER to road pavement:

 

   

  
Figure 7. The main interface of Micro PAVER                    Figure 8. Inventory item
features

 

    

          Figure 9. Inputting Distress information                     Figure 10. PCI results for road sections

 

 

 

 

5        
Results and discussions

After inspection of Jamal Abd El-Naser Street,
condition assessment of each section was performed to the road using Micro
PAVER software. Table 2, Table 3, Figure 11 and Figure 12 represent distresses
that have been found with their quantities in different severities for the
two-lane direction. It can be seen that the Patching is the most common and
repeated distress on the right direction, while Alligator Cracking at low
severity is the most common distress on the left direction.

Table 2. Pavement
distress quantities for Right direction of the road

Description

unit

Quantity

Low
Severity

Medium
Severity

High
Severity

Alligator Cracking

m2

11

11

11

Corrugation

m2

1

0

0

Depression

m2

0

1

0

Edge Cracking

m

1

0

0

Lane-Shoulder Drop

m

0

3

2

Long. and trans. CR

m

6

6

0

Patching

m2

61

40

25

Polished Aggregate

m2

0

8

0

Potholes

number

0

0

0.9

Rutting

m2

0

0

10

Swell

m2

0

1

0

Weathering
and Raveling

m2

10

8

0

 

Figure 11. Distress types and their
quantity on the right road direction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3. Pavement Distress Quantities
for left direction of the road

Description

unit

Quantity

Low Severity

Medium Severity

High Severity

Alligator Cracking

m2

34

1

0

Block Cracking

m2

0

2

0

Edge Cracking

m

1

0

0

Lane-Shoulder Drop

m

0

3

2

Long. and trans. CR

m

1

15

0

Patching

m2

21

4

3

Polished Aggregate

m2

0

5

0

Potholes

number

0.1

0

0

Weathering and Raveling

m2

5

0

0

 

Figure 12. Distress types and their
quantity on the left road direction

 

After input each point of distress type that found for
each road section in Micro PAVER, the program will display the PCI value
directly corresponding to the condition rate. The results of the field
inspection and PCI calculations for sections were showed in Tables 4, Table 5
and Figure 13 for the two road directions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4. PCI values of road sections (Right
direction)

Sample Number

Sample
Size (m2)

PCI

Rating

1

700

53

Fair

2

700

32

Poor

3

700

48

Fair

4

700

54

Fair

5

700

65

Good

6

700

10

Failed

7

700

7

Failed

8

700

13

Very
poor

9

700

17

Very
poor

10

700

47

Fair

Average
PCI of sections

35

Poor

 

Table 5. PCI values of road sections (Left
direction)

Sample Number

Sample area (m2)

PCI

Rating

1

700

92

Excellent

2

700

83

Very Good

3

700

85

Very Good

4

700

58

Good

5

700

77

Very Good

6

700

60

Good

7

700

59

Good

8

700

65

Good

9

700

75

Very Good

10

700

60

Good

Average PCI of sections

71

Very Good

 

Figure 13. PCI values of road sections
for two-lane direction

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the PCI of road sections appeared that, the
pavement condition of the left direction is better than the right direction,
the overall PCI of the left direction is 71% which means very good condition,
while the overall PCI of the left direction is 35% which means Poor condition.
Both direction are suffering from the passage of heavy loaded traffic vehicles
and lack to routine maintenance. Since left direction of road is rehabilitated before,
so the distresses are little.   

The causes of
pavement deterioration may be divided into the following three general
categories: Load Related, Climate Related, and Other. The results of
Micro PAVER software depict the primary causes of pavement deterioration as
shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14. Reasons of distresses for the
selected road pavement.

 

The deterioration observed on road pavement was caused primarily by
load-related distresses, such as Alligator cracking, Rutting and Potholes.
Other causes come in the second order such as Patching were found across the
road pavement, while the climate causes comprise the smallest percentage of
distress causes.

6        
Conclusion and RECOMMENDATION

This paper has presented a review for the pavement
maintenance management system (PMMS) with aided to Micro PAVER software. PMMS is considered as a vital method that helps
decision makers to assess the pavement performance and determine optimum
strategies for selecting maintenance and rehabilitation needs. The current
management in Benghazi city reveals that, poor management for its existing road
networks and incorrect assessment in the budget and the priorities. Since the pavement
condition is significant part of any PMMS, an attempt was made to evaluate the
pavement condition of one kilometer of Jamal Abd El-Naser Street as a case
study using Micro PAVER software. The results found that, Patching, Alligator
Cracking and Longitudinal and Transverse Cracking are the most common distress in
the road section. The PCI results appeared that, the condition of left
direction of road is better than the

 

 

 

 

right direction, the overall PCI of the left direction is 71%, while
the Right direction PCI is 35%. The observed deterioration on the road pavement
were primarily by load-related distresses while the climate causes comprise the
smallest percentage of distress causes. PMMS should be carried out soon in
Benghazi city to maintain the highway network in an acceptable condition.
Efforts must be made for developing management system of highways for the next
few years using new techniques with available resources.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the students of Higher Institute for Engineering
Occupation, Benghazi: Salheen Elagoori, Naser Elshekhi and Ahmed Elmesheti for
their contribution to the field part of this study and doing the manual survey
of the road pavement.

 

REFERENCES

           

American
Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D6433 (1999). Standard Practice for
Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys, USA

Beitelmal, J. & Orafy, H. (2010) Establishment
of Management System for Maintenance Activities in Urban Road Network Case
study in Benghazi – Libya, 12th WCTR, Lisbon, Portugal.

Jendia
S. & Al Hallaq M. (2004). Development of a Pavement Maintenance
Management System (PMMS) for Gaza City, The Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine.

Karim,
F., Rubasi, K. & Saleh, A. (2016). The Road Pavement Condition Index
(PCI) Evaluation and Maintenance: A Case Study of Yemen. Organization, Technology and Management
in Construction, 8:pp1446–145.

Shahin,
M.Y. (2005). Pavement Management for Airports, Roads, and Parking Lots,
Second Edition, New York: Springer.

Shahin,
M.Y. & Walther, J.A. (1990). Pavement Maintenance Management for Roads
and Streets Using the PAVER System, US Army Corps of Engineering.

US Army Corps of Engineers (2004) Micro PAVER Version 5.2 User
Manual, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory.