1. It is the Prime Minister who is the

1.      
The
executive branch

There are two different types of democracy to be distinguished
respectively in Poland and the US. The parliamentary system, which is the model
established in Poland, posits that the executive power is a part of the
legislature and law-making branch. The executive branch consists of the
president together with the government. We can distinguish between two main
leaders – head of state, who’s function is mostly ceremonial, and head of
government, who is the top administrative leader. It is the Prime Minister who
is the executive but he also integrates with the legislative branch, voting on
the laws along with the Parliament. On the other hand, presidential government
of the US gives both positions of the chief of state and head of government to
a single person. In this system the president is constitutionally independent
of the legislative which is the United States Congress. Another aspect relating
to the topic of differences between the executive in both countries is the type
of elections. In the Republic of Poland the president is elected directly by
absolute majority popular vote (sometimes two rounds are needed) for a 5-years
term. Prime minister, deputy prime ministers and Council of Ministers are
appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm. The United States hold
the election of the president and vice president on the same ballot by the
Electoral College of “electors” chosen from each state. President and
vice president of the US serve 4-years term.

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2.      
 The legislative branch

The structure of the legislature in Poland consists of the Senat, in
which there are 100 seats, and Sejm with 460 seats. Members of the Senate and
Sejm are directly elected respectively in single-seat constituencies by simple
majority vote and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation,
both to serve 4-years terms. Although the US Congress, which is the formal name
for the country’s legislature, is also bicameral, there are differences to the
Polish constituent power in structure, election and terms. Among 100 Senate
members there are two members directly elected in each of the 50 state
constituencies by simple majority vote (with two exceptions) to serve 6-years
terms; in the House of Representatives there are 435 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple
majority vote (except in Georgia) who’s terms are 2 years long.

3.      
Judicial branch

The judicial branch is
the least influential of the tree branches of power although it has ultimate
appellate jurisdiction. The highest court in Poland is The Supreme Court or S?d
Najwy?szy and consists of the president of The Supreme Court and 116 judges
organized in following chambers: civil, criminal, labour and social insurance
and military. The Supreme Court of the United States consists of 9 justices –
the chief justice and another 8 associate justices. Polish and US judiciary
differ not only in matters of structure, but also selection of the judges and
terms of their office. In Poland the president of the Supreme Court is
nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the
president of the country and the other judges are nominated by the National
Judiciary Council, consisting of 25 members, and appointed by the president of
Poland. The judges are appointed until retirement, which is usually at age 65,
but their tenure can be extended. In USA it is the president who nominates and
appoints Supreme Court justices, using the advice and consent of the Senate.
Here the justices are appointed for life.